Canada represents a compelling illustration of the complexities of established-outsiders relations. A close examination of various historical processes, such as the official narrative of two founding peoples, different waves of colonization, and racialized immigration policies, sheds light on how dynamic and ever changing established-outsiders relations are developing. It also uncovers the tremendous importance of racialization in the shaping of Canadian figurations. First, I offer some historical highlights on the colonization processes and their effects on established-outsiders relations in Canada. Second, I look at inclusion / exclusion dynamics in the different immigration waves and focus more specifically on “whitening.” It shows that established and outsiders are not two black boxes but very fluid and dynamic relational patterns. Lastly, I present the persistent hierarchies of the hierarchies within both the French-speakers and English-speakers which allows me to open the discussion on the problematic conceptualization of identity as a single root and multiculturalism. I finally argue that taking seriously rhizomatic identities seems a promising avenue to overcome establishedoutsiders relations.