Die Erwerbstätigkeit von Frauen in Minijobs: eine subjektorientierte Analyse (des-) integrativer Dynamiken atypischer Beschäftigung
Titelübersetzung:The Employment of Women in Mini jobs: a subject-orientated Analysis of (Dis-) Integration Dynamics in nonstandard Employment
Quelle: AIS-Studien, 13 (2020) 2, S 117-139
Inhalt: Minijobs haben sich seit den 1990er Jahren speziell für Frauen als stabiles Arbeitsmarktsegment etabliert und werden ebenso lange als prekäre Beschäftigungsform problematisiert. Die zentralen Prekaritätsachsen bilden die im Vergleich zu sozialversicherungspflichtig Beschäftigten unterdurchschnittlichen Arbeits- und Beschäftigungsbedingungen sowie die unzureichende Möglichkeit einer eigenständigen sozialen Absicherung. Ausgehend von einer nur marginalen Subjektorientierung in der bisherigen Forschung beleuchtet der Beitrag diese Problemfelder von Minijobs und fragt nach der subjektiven Arbeitsqualität sowie den Ausprägungen und Erklärungsfaktoren der Erwerbspräferenzen von weiblichen Minijobbenden. Die Befunde signalisieren eine divergierende Beurteilung der Arbeitsqualität in unterschiedlichen Dimensionen von Erwerbsarbeit und sensibilisieren somit für den Nutzen mehrdimensionaler und subjektiver Zugänge für die Analyse von Arbeitsqualität. Darüber hinaus offenbart sich eine nur geringe Normalarbeitsorientierung unter (weiblichen) Minijobbenden, deren Ursachen vielfältig sind und nicht ausschließlich auf institutionelle Fehlanreize reduziert werden können.
Schlagwörter:Erwerbstätigkeit; gainful employment; berufstätige Frau; working woman; woman; geringfügige Beschäftigung; minimal employment; prekäre Beschäftigung; precarious employment; Arbeitsbedingungen; working conditions; Beschäftigungsbedingungen; employment conditions; soziale Sicherung; social security
SSOAR Kategorie:Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung, Arbeitsmarktforschung
The Migration of Career-Starter Hungarian Graduate Women to the Countries of the European Union
Czibere, Ibolya; Schranz, Edit
Quelle: Social Sciences, 9 (2020) 5, S 1-19
Inhalt: In our paper, we present the reasons for and characteristics of the increasing migration of graduate women, mostly undertaken alone. In Hungary, in the context of the acceleration of migration experienced after 2010, two phenomena can be observed: (1) Due to positive selection a high proportion of well-trained young graduates have moved to live abroad; (2) over the past few years, a higher proportion of those migrating for work have been female graduates in their maternity age. Thus, not only is the process of weakening of the male dominance among the emigrants clearly perceptible, but a Hungary-related version of the feminization of the brain drain phenomenon due to the labor market demand of the host countries is also evolving. In this study, we examine the motivations of graduate women to work abroad and the success of their integration. Our qualitative study examines motivations for migration among college graduate females, who are just starting their career. We have explored social forces that influence emigration among the highest educated. We have also studied integration and assimilation strategies among Hungarian women working in the European Union. Our findings contribute to and extend research that focuses on push and pull factors in migration, as well as the interpretation of gender differences in migration, especially among the highest educated.
Schlagwörter:Mikrozensus; microcensus; Auslandstätigkeit; work abroad; Migration; migration; woman; Arbeitsmigration; labor migration; Brain Drain; brain drain; EU; EU; Ungar; Hungarian; Abwanderung; out-migration; Fachkraft; specialist; feminization of brain drain; causes of migration
SSOAR Kategorie:Migration, Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung, Arbeitsmarktforschung
Do hiring practices penalize women and benefit men for having children? Experimental evidence from Germany
Quelle: European Sociological Review, (2019) , S 1-28
Inhalt: Although observational studies from many countries have consistently shown that motherhood negatively affects women’s wages, experimental findings on its effect on the likelihood of being hired are less conclusive. Motherhood penalties in hiring have been reported in the US, the prototypical liberal market economy, but not in Sweden, the prototypical social-democratic welfare state. Based on a field experiment in Germany, this study examines the effects of parenthood on hiring processes in the prototypical conservative welfare state. My findings indicate that job recruitment processes indeed penalize women but not men for having children. In addition to providing theoretical explanations for why motherhood penalties in hiring are particularly likely to occur in the German context, this study also highlights several methodological and practical issues that should be considered when conducting correspondence studies to examine labor market discrimination.
Schlagwörter:Federal Republic of Germany; Familienpolitik; family policy; Elternschaft; parenthood; Mutterschaft; motherhood; Vaterschaft; fatherhood; gender-specific factors; Diskriminierung; discrimination; Berufsaussicht; career prospect; Stellenbesetzung; staffing; field experiment
SSOAR Kategorie:Arbeitsmarktforschung, Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung
Partnered women's contribution to household labor income: Persistent inequalities among couples and their determinants
Dieckhoff, Martina; Gash, Vanessa; Mertens, Antje; Romeu Gordo, Laura
Quelle: Social Science Research, (2019) 85
Inhalt: This paper explores earnings inequalities within dual-earner couples in East and West Germany drawing on household-level panel data from 1992 to 2016. It has three aims: (1) to analyze how the partner pay gap (the pay gap between partners within one household) has developed over time, given institutional change, and whether the extent of inequality and temporal development vary between East and West Germany; (2) to explore variation in the partner pay gap by male partners' absolute earnings; and (3) to investigate the micro-level determinants of earnings inequalities within couples and determine whether their relevance varies between East and West Germany as well as by male partners’ absolute earnings. We find women earn substantially less than their partners, and our regression results find no indication of a declining partner pay gap. Besides substantial variation between East and West Germany, our results also reveal important group-specific variation in the extent of the partner pay gap as well as in its determinants.
Schlagwörter:Dual Career Couple; alte Bundesländer; Erwerbsbeteiligung; old federal states; Haushaltseinkommen; Einkommensunterschied; partnership; Federal Republic of Germany; household income; woman; difference in income; neue Bundesländer; Partnerschaft; labor force participation; gender-specific factors; New Federal States; dual career couple; Ungleichheit; inequality; gender inequality; institutional change; partner pay gap; time trends; German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) (1992-2016)
SSOAR Kategorie:Arbeitsmarktforschung, Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung
Against the Grain? Assessing Graduate Labour Market Trends in Germany Through a Task-Based Indicator of Graduate Jobs
Quelle: Social Indicators Research, 141 (2019) 2, S 809-840
Inhalt: Applying work by Green and Henseke (in IZA J Labor Policy 5(1):14, 2016a), this study examines changes in the German graduate labour market in the twenty-first century. To do so, it deploys a new statistically derived indicator of graduate jobs, based on job skill requirements obtained from worker-reported task data in the German Employment Surveys 2006 and 2012. As in previous work, the resulting classifier explains differences in graduate labour market outcomes better than existing methods and can be applied in a range of contexts where intelligence on graduate destinations is desired. It is supplied in the appendix of this study. Despite the expansion of higher educational attainment between 1999 and 2012, my analysis indicates a rising excess demand for graduate labour. Following key findings emerge: Graduate skills are required beyond the narrow range of professions. Work tasks associated with cognitive skills use are key determinants of higher education requirements on the job. The proportion of graduates in the age bracket 25-34 has risen among men from 14.7 to 18.9% and from 13.3 to 22.5% among women between 1999 and 2012. Young women have become the group with greatest level of higher education in the labour market. The growing supply of graduate labour in the age bracket 25-34 was surpassed by the expansion of employment in graduate jobs. The employment share of graduate jobs shifted by 17 percentage points to almost 30% among young women and by 11 percentage points to 28% among young men. Among young female graduates, the incidence of underemployment fell to 22% between 1999 and 2012; roughly comparable to the level among males at the same ages. Prime aged female graduates, however, experience above average rates of underemployment. A sharp rise of the pay premium associated with higher education among men contrasts with stagnating wage differentials among women. The pay penalty associated with underemployment has not changed statistically significantly.
Schlagwörter:Federal Republic of Germany; Arbeitsmarkt; labor market; Akademikerberuf; academic career; Qualifikationsanforderungen; qualification requirements; Indikator; indicator; Arbeitskräftenachfrage; labor demand; Absolvent; graduate; university; gender-specific factors; Unterbeschäftigung; underemployment; Lohnunterschied; wage difference; graduate jobs; wage dispersion; BIBB/BAuA Employment Survey (1998/1999, 2005/2006 and 2011/2012); National Educational Panel Study (NEPS); German sample of the EU Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) 1999-2013
SSOAR Kategorie:Arbeitsmarktforschung, Bildungswesen tertiärer Bereich
Patterns of Overeducation in Europe: The Role of Field of Study
Rossen, Anja; Boll, Christina; Wolf, André
Quelle: IZA Journal of Labor Policy, 9 (2019) 1, S 1-48
Inhalt: This study investigates the incidence of overeducation among graduate workers in 21 European Union countries and its underlying factors based on the European Labor Force Survey 2016. Although controlling for a wide range of covariates, the particular interest lies in the role of fields of study for vertical educational mismatch. The study reveals country differences in the impact of these factors. Compared to Social sciences, male graduates from, for example, Education, Health and welfare, Engineering, and ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) are less and those from Services and Natural sciences are more at risk in a clear majority of countries. These findings are robust against changes of the standard education. Moreover, some fields show gender-specific risks. We suggest that occupational closure, productivity signals and gender stereotypes answer for these cross-field and cross-country differentials. Moreover, country fixed effects point to relevant structural differences between national labor markets and between educational systems.
Schlagwörter:Qualifikation; qualification; hoch Qualifizierter; highly qualified worker; Bildungsniveau; level of education; Qualifikationsanforderungen; qualification requirements; Beruf; occupation; Studienfach; subject of study; gender-specific factors; EU; EU; college major; country-specific effects; field of study; gender; labor force survey; overeducation; realized matches; vertical mismatch; European Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS)
Who is Going to Build the Wall? A Building Trades Crisis in the U.S.A.
Quelle: International journal for research in vocational education and training, 5 (2018) 1, S 64-76
Inhalt: The context of this study was to examine factors contributing to significant workforce shortages in building trades in the United States. As it is, recruitment of qualified skilled trades workers is becoming increasingly difficult due to lack of a pipeline of prospective workers, and training programs. The study assumed a theoretical inquiry approach in order to address the following three main questions: 1) What is the scope of the workforce shortage in skilled and building trades in the US? 2) What factors are recognized as contributors to the building trades workforce shortage in the US? And, 3) What strategies can be implemented to reverse building trades workforce shortages in the US? Findings affirmed that the scope of workforce shortages in skilled and building (construction) trades in the US is very broad and the impact is rather deep. Factors contributing to the shortage include: declines in high school technical education programs, which have been replaced by career academies; misconception that higher education al- ways equal higher income, but the untold story is higher debt associated with pursuing higher education; and stricter immigration laws, which are forcing potential workers out of the US. The study concluded that in order to reverse currently declining workforce trends the following six strategies should be implemented: 1) Make it a national priority, thereby appropriating adequate resources to the effort. 2) Increase the number or women and African Americans in building trades. 3) Expand apprenticeship programs. An expansion of both government and corporate incentives are needed to stimulate an increase in apprenticeships. 4) Reintroduce building and skilled trades programs in secondary and postsecondary schools. Growth in the number of Career Academies, and participation in them has been encouraging, yet there are not enough of them to meet the need. 5) Re-examine guest-worker programs, which are currently cumbersome for employers to participate in, and do not allow for anywhere close to the number of workers needed to meet workforce needs. 6) Change marketing of building trades from menial to meaningful. Many young people simply do not know that they can make a comfortable living from a career in skilled trades. They have been taught that at least a bachelor’s degree is needed in order to have a successful career. This narrative has to be revised in order to create a pipeline of prospective skilled trades employees for the future.
Schlagwörter:USA; United States of America; Baugewerbe; construction industry; Arbeitskräftebedarf; manpower requirements; Fachkraft; specialist; technische Ausbildung; technical training; Berufsbildung; vocational education; Ausbildungsförderung; government promotion of vocational training; Berufsorientierung; vocational guidance; Karriereplanung; career planning; ausländischer Arbeitnehmer; foreign worker; Zuwanderungsrecht; immigration law; VET; Vocational Education and Training; Technical Vocational Education; Construction; Skilled Trades; Workforce Education
Returns to foreign and host country qualifications: evidence from the US on the labour market placement of migrants and the second generation
Demireva, Neli; Lo Iacono, Sergio
Quelle: Social Inclusion, 6 (2018) 3, S 142-152
Inhalt: The integration of migrants in the US economic system is a central concern of policy-makers and scholars. A faster and smoother assimilation of valuable human capital would indeed benefit the labour market, increasing its efficiency. To investigate the integration of minorities and migrants in the US labour market, we employ data from the Current Population Survey from June 2016 (the primary source of labour force statistics in the US). We focus on the following ethnic groups: White, Black, Asian, and Other (a combination of Native Americans, Pacific and Mixed). For each ethnicity we consider if respondents are US born, 1st- or 2nd-generation of immigrant descent. Among 1st-generation migrants, we further differentiate between recent (in the country for 10 years or less) and long (in the country for more than 10 years) arrivals, as they are likely to have different levels of social capital and knowledge of the job market. We focus on three very relevant labour market outcomes: being employed, being employed in a public sector job and working in a professional or managerial position. Our results indicate better placement of individuals with tertiary degrees, an effect particularly important among women. Minorities in the public sector have made some important gains in terms of occupational attainment parity with the white majority.
Schlagwörter:Ethnizität; ethnicity; Migrant; migrant; USA; United States of America; Humankapital; human capital; Arbeitsmarkt; labor market; erste Generation; first generation; zweite Generation; second generation; öffentlicher Sektor; public sector; privater Sektor; private sector; Minderheit; minority; Qualifikation; qualification; berufliche Integration; occupational integration
Employment and education-occupation mismatches of immigrants and their children in the netherlands: comparisons with the native majority group
Quelle: Social Inclusion, 6 (2018) 3, S 119-141
Inhalt: This study examines the labor market integration of immigrants and their children in the Netherlands focusing on employment and over- and underqualification. Using data from the first wave of the Netherlands Longitudinal Life-Course Study (NELLS), the analysis shows disadvantages in employment probabilities for men and women from different foreign origin groups compared to the Dutch majority even after accounting for differences in human capital. Ethnic differences in employment probabilities are lower, but still visible, when comparing only respondents who obtained post-secondary education in the Netherlands. Further, first-generation immigrant men from Turkey and Morocco are at higher risk of being overeducated than Dutch majority men whereas this is not the case for second generation men and first- and secondgeneration minority women. Substantial ethnic difference in the likelihood of being undereducated are not prevalent. Having a foreign compared to a Dutch degree is related to lower labor market outcomes, but this negative relation is more pronounced for women than for men. Finally, there is some indication that overeducation is somewhat less common in the public sector than in the private sector, but minorities do not benefit more from this than the Dutch majority.
Schlagwörter:Niederlande; Netherlands; Einwanderung; immigration; Migrant; migrant; Integration; integration; Bildungsniveau; level of education; Qualifikationsniveau; level of qualification; Überqualifikation; over qualification; öffentlicher Sektor; public sector; Ethnizität; ethnicity; Erwerbsarbeit; gainful work; Humankapital; human capital; Mann; man; woman; erste Generation; first generation; zweite Generation; second generation
Returns to human capital and the incorporation of highly-skilled workers in the public and private sector of major immigrant societies: an introduction
Demireva, Neli; Fellini, Ivana
Quelle: Social Inclusion, 6 (2018) 3, S 1-5
Inhalt: Across the major immigrant societies of the European Union, EU-15 countries, migrants and minorities still experience economic disadvantage. This failure of economic integration poses significant questions about the utilization of human capital, the management of mobility and the competitiveness of European labour markets (Cameron, 2011; OECD, 2017). Using a variety of datasets, this special issue pushes the debate forward in several ways. We will consider the integration outcomes of both migrants and second generation minority members in comparison to majority members. Labour market outcomes will be considered broadly: the probability of employment but also overqualification will be taken into account. Offering both analysis of single country cases and a cross-national comparison, the special issue will build a comprehensive picture of the factors associated with labour market disadvantage of migrant men and women, and their descendants - particularly, differential returns to foreign qualifications and educational credentials, differences between public and private sectors placements, and where possible the period of the economic crisis will be examined as well.