Incorporation of immigrants and second generations into the french labour market: changes between generations and the role of human capital and origins
Quelle: Social Inclusion, 6 (2018) 3, S 104-118
Inhalt: This article analyses the labour market incorporation of migrants and second-generation minorities in France. Using the 2013-2017 French Labour Surveys and the 2014 adhoc module, we focus on labour market outcomes -activity, employment, occupation and subjective overqualification- and measure the gaps between ethnic minorities and the majority group by origins, generation and by gender. In order to elucidate the mechanisms behind these gaps and explain ethnic disadvantages for immigrants, we take into account different factors, such as education, and factors linked to migration -duration of stay in France, language skills, foreign qualifications, nationality- with additional controls for family, socioeconomic and contextual characteristics. We also investigate the returns to higher education among second-generation minority members compared to the majority population. We show large differences by country of origins, generation and gender. Across generations, most minority members have made clear progress in terms of access to employment and skilled jobs, but ethnic penalties remain for the descendants of North-Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa and Turkey. In contrast, Asian second-generation men and women encounter slight advantages in attaining highly-skilled positions. Controlling for tertiary degrees even increases the gap with majority members mostly in access to highly-skills jobs.
Schlagwörter:Einwanderung; immigration; Migrant; migrant; Minderheit; minority; Frankreich; France; Arbeitsmarkt; labor market; Humankapital; human capital; Diskriminierung; discrimination; Beschäftigung; employment; Bildungsniveau; level of education; Bildung; education; zweite Generation; second generation; Facharbeiter; skilled worker; Inklusion; inclusion
SSOAR Kategorie:Migration, Arbeitsmarktforschung, soziale Probleme
Employment returns to tertiary education for immigrants in Western Europe: cross-country differences before and after the economic crisis
Quelle: Social Inclusion, 6 (2018) 3, S 64-77
Inhalt: This article contributes to the literature on the models of immigrants’ labour market incorporation in Western Europe by analysing the employment returns to tertiary education for both natives and immigrants. By using yearly EU-LFS data (2005-2013) for a selection of Western European countries, cross-country differences in the employment returns to tertiary education are analysed separately by immigrant status and gender. In Continental Europe, where immigrant-native employment gaps before the crisis were much larger than in Southern Europe, immigrants are found to benefit more from tertiary education, and their returns are also higher than for natives, while the opposite holds in Southern European countries. The same pattern is found irrespective of gender, but cross-country differences are more pronounced among women. The article also documents that the crisis contributed to a cross-country convergence, although limited to men, in the degree of immigrant employment disadvantage, which increased substantially in Southern Europe while remaining unchanged or slightly declining in all other countries. Nevertheless, although immigrant-native employment gaps grew as high as in Continental Europe, immigrant men in Southern Europe are still found to benefit from lower returns to tertiary education than their native counterparts.
Gender discrimination in hiring across occupations: a nationally-representative vignette study
Kübler, Dorothea; Schmid, Julia; Stüber, Robert
Quelle: Labour Economics, (2018) 55, S 215-229
Inhalt: We investigate gender discrimination in a nationally-representative sample of German firms using a factorial survey design. Short CVs of fictitious applicants for apprenticeship positions are presented to human resource managers who are asked to evaluate the applicants. Women are evaluated worse than men on average, controlling for all attributes of the CV. This measure of discrimination is robust to differences in the variance of unobservable productivity characteristics ("Heckman critique"). Discrimination against women varies across industries and occupations. Controlling for all occupation- and firm-related variables that we observe, only the share of women in an occupation correlates with discrimination.
Schlagwörter:Berufsgruppe; occupational group; Männerberuf; male profession; Personaleinstellung; hiring; Ausbildungsplatz; traineeship; Diskriminierung; discrimination; gender-specific factors; Federal Republic of Germany; hiring decisions; vignette study
SSOAR Kategorie:Arbeitsmarktforschung, Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung
Barriers to women's representation in academic excellence and positions of power
Yousaf, Rizwana; Schmiede, Rudi
Quelle: Asian Journal of German and European Studies, 2 (2017) , S 1-13
Inhalt: "Nearly for half a century women's advancement in the workplace has been in a debate. Women’s under-represented in higher education institutions and universities across the globe, and especially in the most powerful or influential posts, is well established. Despite gender equality commitments and women's educational attainment, still, they are underrepresented. Regions and countries may vary in term of culture, achievements and development, but barriers for women's representation in academia are surprisingly similar in many regions. It is found that there are several barriers which women might be experiencing in academia ranging from personal, organizational to societal." (author's abstract)
Institutional change and gender inequalities at labour market entry: a comparison of Estonia, Russia, and East and West Germany
Kosyakova, Yuliya; Saar, Ellu; Dämmrich, Johanna
Quelle: Studies of Transition States and Societies, 9 (2017) 2, S 17-40
Inhalt: Our study investigates how gender inequalities in job opportunities evolved during communist and post-communist times in former state-socialist countries. Theoretical arguments (mainly based on studies referring to Western countries) led to the expectation of a surge in gender inequalities in these countries after the collapse of communism. Empirically, we explore the gender gap in job authority upon labour market entry by using life-history data from Russia, Estonia, and East Germany, with West Germany serving as a control case. The selection of countries was motivated primarily by the availability of rich life-history data, covering four decades of (post-) state socialism but also by divergences in institutional set-ups in the course of transition from state socialism to a liberalised market economy. Our findings yield four major results. First, accounting for education and the branch of economy, women were not disadvantaged during Soviet times; instead, we have even found evidence of a slight female advantage in Estonia and East Germany. Thus, our findings mirror the communist regime's effectiveness in equalising women's and men's opportunities at work. Second, in the pre-collapse decade, the advantage of women in terms of job authority decreased in East Germany and Estonia, whereas in Russia, women fell behind men. Third, with the Soviet Union collapse, a remarkable female disadvantage emerged in all formerly state socialist countries under scrutiny. In addition, we observe a growing gender gap in West Germany in the same period. The latter result strengthens the conclusion that times of economic liberalisation may go hand-in-hand with increasing gender inequalities.
Quelle: Industrielle Beziehungen : Zeitschrift für Arbeit, Organisation und Management, 24 (2017) 2, S 196-217
Inhalt: Der Beitrag geht der Frage nach, welche betrieblichen Faktoren die Präsenz von Frauen in Führungspositionen beeinflussen. Hierbei interessiert uns auch die Rolle des Betriebsrats. Für unsere multivariate Analyse nutzen wir das IAB-Betriebspanel 2014 und verwenden Zähldatenmodelle mit der Anzahl Frauen im Führungsteam als abhängiger Variablen. Wir schätzen sowohl Modelle für die erste als auch für die zweite Führungsebene. Für die erste Führungsebene lassen sich Hinweise auf die in der Literatur beschriebenen Barrieren finden, die als gläserne Klippen und Böden bzw. Etagen, auf denen Frauen kleben bleiben, umschrieben werden. Insgesamt vermitteln die Ergebnisse aber vor allem den Eindruck, dass Frauen in "unattraktiven" Betrieben eher in Führungspositionen zu finden sind.
Schlagwörter:woman; Führungsposition; executive position; Vorstand; board of directors; Management; management; Frauenanteil; proportion of women; beruflicher Aufstieg; career advancement; Mobilitätsbarriere; mobility barrier; Chancengleichheit; equal opportunity; Gleichberechtigung; equality of rights; Organisationskultur; organizational culture; Federal Republic of Germany
SSOAR Kategorie:Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung, Arbeitsmarktforschung
Underrepresentation of women at academic excellence and position of power: role of harassment and glass ceiling
Yousaf, Rizwana; Schmiede, Rudi
Quelle: Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4 (2016) 2, S 173-185
Inhalt: The study intends to comprehend the underrepresentation of women on positions of power and
academic excellence in academia. The study explained the role of exploitation and harassment,
which might hinder, when women were trying to climb to top hierarchical position. The majority
of women supervised by male heads, sexual harassment could be used as a glass ceiling to hamper
women to reach top hierarchal level. The majority participants were working on lower academic
and administrative hierarchy; they were experiencing harassment throughout the hierarchical
level. Similarly, they considered that harassment could contribute to the underrepresentation of
women at academic excellence and a position of power.
A stalled revolution? What can we learn from women’s drop-out to part-time jobs: a comparative analysis of Germany and the UK
Dieckhoff, Martina; Gash, Vanessa; Mertens, Antje; Romeu Gordo, Laura
Quelle: Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, (2016) 46 (B), S 129-140
Inhalt: This study examines how within-couple inequalities, that is power differences between men and women in a partnership, act as predictors of transitions from full-time to part-time employment applying Heckman corrected probit models in three different institutional and cultural contexts; Eastern Germany, Western Germany and the United Kingdom. The analyses show that when women are in a weaker position within their relationships they are more likely to drop-out of full-time work, but that this propensity varies by context. The authors also find an increased tendency over time for women to leave full-time for part-time employment in both Eastern and Western Germany, but observe no such trend in the UK. This is suggestive of ongoing incompatibilities in the institutional support for equality in dual-earning in Germany. The study uses longitudinal data covering the period 1992 until 2012 from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for Germany and from the British Household Panel (BHPS) and the ‘Understanding Society’ data for the UK.
Schlagwörter:alte Bundesländer; Erwerbsbeteiligung; Arbeitsteilung; old federal states; part-time work; Haushaltseinkommen; division of labor; Hausarbeit; housework; partnership; Federal Republic of Germany; household income; Großbritannien; Teilzeitarbeit; neue Bundesländer; Partnerschaft; labor force participation; Great Britain; gender-specific factors; New Federal States; Ungleichheit; inequality; cross-national comparison
SSOAR Kategorie:Arbeitsmarktforschung, Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung