GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences: Go to homepage
Allgemeine Bevölkerungs­umfrage
der Sozial­wissenschaften

ALLBUS 1994 (ZA No. 2400)

Data Set

(PDF - German only)

Methodological Report
(PDF - German only)

Variable Report
(PDF - German only)

Data Collection Period:

  • February 1994 to May 1994

Data Collector:

  • Infratest Burke (Munich) and Infratest Burke (Berlin)

Data Set:

  • 3450 respondents
  • 436 variables

Scientific Council:

  • Klaus Allerbeck, University of Frankfurt;
  • Jutta Allmendinger, University of Munich;
  • Walter Müller, University of Mannheim;
  • Karl Dieter Opp, University of Leipzig;
  • Franz Urban Pappi, University of Mannheim;
  • Erwin K. Scheuch, University of Cologne;
  • Rolf Ziegler, University of Munich



Social monitoring of trends in attitudes, behavior, and societal change in the Federal Republic of Germany. The main topics in 1994 are:

  1. Economic situations and occupational life
  2. Social inequality and the welfare state
  3. Attitudes towards and contacts with foreigners living in Germany
  4. Political attitudes
  5. Attitudes relating to the process of German unification
  6. ALLBUS-Demography
  7. Data on the interview (paradata)
  8. Family and changing gender roles II (ISSP 1994)
  9. Added value


  1. Economic situations and occupational life: assessments of present and future economic situation in Germany and in respondent's own federal state; assessment of current and future personal economic situation; education and occupation; fear of unemployment or loss of business; length of personal unemployment; social origin; evaluation of personal occupational success and expectations for the future; attitude towards personal occupation; fear of unemployment or loss of own business.
  2. Social inequality and the welfare state: self-assessment of social class; fair share in standard of living; evaluation of personal occupational success, comparison with father's position; attitudes towards the German economic system and evaluation of welfare state measures; realization of personal ideas of success; assessment of access to education; attitudes towards social differences and conditions for success; opinions on personal social security; stance on extension or reduction in social services; opinion on level of income in personal household.
  3. Attitudes towards and contacts with foreigners living in Germany: citizenship; scale of attitudes towards foreigners; contacts with foreigners living in Germany or with foreign guest-workers (Gastarbeiter, split) within the family, at work, in the neighborhood, or among friends.
  4. Political attitudes: political interest; postmaterialism (importance of law and order, fighting rising prices, free expression of opinions, and influence on governmental decisions); self-placement on a left-right continuum; confidence in public institutions and organizations (public health service, federal constitutional court, federal parliament (Bundestag), city or municipal administration, armed forces, churches, judiciary, television, newspapers, universities, federal government, trade unions, police, employment offices, retirement insurance, employers' association, European Community Commission, European Parliament, European Court of Justice); party-sympathy-scales for the CDU, SPD, CSU, FDP, The Greens (Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen), Republicans (Republikaner), PDS; opinion on the performance of the political system in Germany (political support).
  5. Attitudes relating to the process of German unification: attitude towards the demand for increased willingness to make sacrifices in the West and more patience in the East; unification is advantageous, for East and West respectively; the future in the East depends on the willingness of eastern Germans to make an effort; strangeness of citizens in the other part of Germany; performance pressure in the new states; attitude towards dealing with the Stasi-past of individuals; evaluation of socialism as an idea.
  6. ALLBUS-Demography:
    • Details about the respondent: gender; month and year of birth, age; geographical origin and citizenship; migration to East or West Germany; place of residence (federal state, administrative district, size of municipality, BIK-type of municipality, Boustedt-type of municipality) and length of residence; religious denomination, frequency of church attendance; voting intention (Sonntagsfrage); school education, vocational training; employment status; details about current occupation, length of employment, industrial sector, affiliation to public service, supervisory functions, working hours per week; date of termination of full- or part-time employment; details about former occupation; length of unemployment; respondent's income; marital status.
    • Details about respondent's current spouse: school education, vocational training; employment status; details about current occupation.
    • Details about respondent's steady partner: common household; distribution of household chores; month and year of birth, age; school education, vocational training; employment status; details about current occupation.
    • Details about respondent's parents: school education and vocational training of father and mother; father's occupation.
    • Description of household: size of household; household income; type of dwelling.
    • Details about household members: family relation to respondent; gender; month and year of birth, age; marital status.
    • Respondent's current memberships: Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund - DGB (German Confederation of Trade Unions), Deutsche Angestelltengewerkschaft - DAG (German Salaried Employees' Trade Union), other union, political party.
  7. Data on the interview (paradata): beginning and end of interview; date of interview; length of interview; presence of other people during the interview (presence of spouse, partner, children, relatives, other persons); willingness of respondent to cooperate.
    Data on the interviewer: gender, age, educational level, identification of interviewer.
  8. Family and changing gender roles II (ISSP): attitude towards employment of mothers and married women; role distribution of man and woman in occupation and household; preferred extent of employment for women during different stages of child raising; attitudes towards marriage, single-parenting, cohabitation before marriage, and divorce; the ideal number of children; views on the significance of children; opinion on separation of spouses with and without children; obedience or independent thinking as the more important educational goal; employment of mother during childhood of respondent; current frequency of visits with one's mother; personal divorce; living with spouse or other partner; prior divorce of current partner; previous co-habitation without subsequent marriage; views on paid maternal leave, financial aid for working parents, and on abortion; opinion on pre-marital sexual intercourse, sexual intercourse between minors, marital infidelity, and homosexuality of adults; experience with sexual harassment at the workplace; management of income in marriage or partnership; allocation of duties in the household; division of gainful employment and principal earner in partnership; gainful employment in various phases of child raising; general attitudes towards employment.
  9. Added value: Inglehart-Index; family typology, classification of private households (according to Porst and Funk); International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO 1968, 1988); occupational prestige (according to Treiman); magnitude prestige (according to Wegener); occupational metaclassification (according to Terwey); class position (according to Goldthorpe); weights.

Total Population and Sample:

  • Universe sampled: Federal Republic of Germany
  • Sample of individuals: Two stage disproportionate random sample in western Germany (incl. West Berlin) and eastern Germany (incl. East Berlin) of all persons (German and non-German) who resided in private households and were born before 1 January 1976. In the first sample stage 104 municipalities (Gemeinden) in western Germany and 47 municipalities (Gemeinden) in eastern Germany were selected with a probability proportional to their number of adult residents; in the second sample stage 40 persons (in large cities a corresponding multiple thereof) were selected at random from the municipal registers of residents.
    Targeted individuals who did not have adequate knowledge of German to conduct the interview were treated as systematic unit non-responses.

Method of Data Collection:

  • Personal interview with standardized questionnaire (PAPI - Paper and Pencil Interviewing)
  • additional self-completion questionnaire (drop off) for ISSP

Primary Sampling Units / Sample-Points:

West: 111 Sample-Points (in 104 municipalities)
East: 51 Sample-Points (in 47 municipalities)

Response Rate:

West: 53.2%
East: 55.2%


  • Koch, Achim, Siegfried Gabler and Michael Braun 1994:
    Konzeption und Durchführung der "Allgemeinen Bevölkerungsumfrage der Sozialwissenschaften" (ALLBUS) 1994. ZUMA Arbeitsbericht 94/11.
  • Terwey, Michael 2013:
    Oversamples, Units of Analysis, and the Topic of Data Transformation, in: Michael Terwey and Horst Baumann: Variable Report ALLBUS / German General Social Survey Cumulation 1980-2010. Study-No. 4576. Cologne: GESIS, GESIS - Variable Reports; No. 2013/2: x – xvii.

The known literature using ALLBUS-Data is documented in the ALLBUS-Bibliography. This bibliography can be searched online at the GESIS web presence.

Further Notes:

  • Respondents from the area of the new federal states are oversampled so that analysts can obtain a more detailed picture of this portion of the population.
  • In part a questionnaire with two split versions was used: In the questions about ethnocentrism, the term guest-worker (Gastarbeiter), which was used in previous ALLBUS surveys, was replaced by foreigners living in Germany in 50% of the sample.
  • A second version of this data set (194 variables) with a shortened demography module is additionally available as ALLBUScompact 1994 (ZA No. 3717).
  • A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for use in data citations is supplied as part of the data set.