Center of Excellence Women and Science

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Gender Monitoring In Higher Education And Research Organizations

Gender Equality Data

Gender equality data and their collection are the basis of gender monitoring. The following section presents different types of gender equality data and the principles of their collection. An overview of national and international statistical data on gender relations in academia provides quick access to gender equality data.

The European handbook on equality data defines equality data as qualitative and quantitative information helpful in describing and analyzing equality. The focus is on equality statistics, i.e. aggregated data that reflect inequalities and their causes and effects in society.

The collection of equality data aims to make the status quo of equality and discrimination visible.

Different Types Of Gender Equality Data (cf. Ahyoud et al. 2018: 25ff.)

We can distinguish the following dimensions of gender equality data:

  • Different positioning perspectives:
  1. Discrimination data (auto-hetero perspective) capture relevant discrimination attributions. For example, a woman from Turkey may be perceived as Muslim even though she belongs to a different religion. Attribution by others becomes relevant in the discrimination context; cases of unequal treatment based on attribution should be recorded.
  2. Self-identification data, on the other hand, provide information on how respondents see themselves.

Optimally, both positioning perspectives are linked so that an in-depth analysis is possible.

  • Focus of the statement:
  1. Statements about a specific area (e.g. "in higher education ...")
  2. In comparison to privileged groups (e.g. comparing men and women)
  3. In segments (e.g. proportion of females in society)
  • Survey context:
  1. Administrative data (e.g. university statistics with students, exam, and personnel statistics; research funding from third-party funding agencies)
  2. Student or staff surveys
  3. Discrimination counselling centers (which may have specific data and information on experiences of discrimination)
  4. Academic surveys (e.g. socioeconomic panel)
  • Types of data:
  1. Quantitative data are characterized by closed response categories and measure the prevalence of inequalities.
  2. Qualitative data are characterized by open response categories or interviews and allow mechanisms of inequalities to be analyzed.
  • Types of variables:
  1. Proxy variables (i.e. proximity variables) measure characteristics as immigrant background as a proxy for discrimination.
  2. Variables that measure specific experiences of discrimination

Essential Principles For The Collection Of Gender Equality Data (cf. Ahyoud et al. 2018: 38)

When collecting gender equality data, you should consider the following ethical principles for the sake of the respondents:

  1. Consideration of respondents' self-identification, which may differ from others' attribution
  2. Voluntary participation
  3. Clarification of the meaning and purpose of data collection
  4. The anonymity of data collection and processing
  5. Participation of representatives of the disadvantaged population group(s) in the processes of data collection and analysis (e.g. in the development of categories)
  6. Possibility of selecting multiple identities/grounds of discrimination (intersectionality)
  7. Principle of non-harming (use of data for research purposes only; no misuse of data)

 

Sources:

Ahyoud, Nasiha; Aikins, Joshua Kwesi; Bartsch, Samera; Bechert, Naomi; Gyamerah, Daniel; Wagner, Lucienne (2018): Wer nicht gezählt wird, zählt nicht. Antidiskriminierungs- und Gleichstellungsdaten in der Einwanderungsgesellschaft - eine anwendungsorientierte Einführung. Vielfalt entscheidet - Diversity in Leadership. Published by Citizens for Europe: Berlin. (URL: https://cloud.citizensforeurope.org/index.php/s/7gkZjZfSHDpZTRp#pdfviewer).

Makkonen, Timo (2016): European Handbook on equality data. 2016 revision. p. 15. (URL: Europeanhandbookonequalitydata.pdf).

The following overview provides quick access to gender equality data from the field of science and research for Germany and international data.

Germany

CEWS Statistics (link in German)

CEWS

Sectors: universities, research organizations, industrial research

Topics/differentiation: students, academic qualifications, academic personnel, appointments, third-party funding, committees, leaky pipeline

Geographical reference: Germany (in European and international comparison)

Preparation/use of data: graphical and tabular presentation, data can be downloaded

Data sources: Federal Statistical Office, DFG - Reporting and Statistics, Joint Science Conference, Eurostat

Periodicity: annual

Help page: detailed information on the respective statistics (data sources, key date, calculation, etc.) within the individual data sets

Equal Opportunities In Science And Research (link in German)

Joint Science Conference (Gemeinsame Wissenschaftskonferenz – GWK)

Sectors: universities, research organizations

Topics/differentiation: first-year students, academic qualifications, academic personnel, appointments

Geographical reference: Germany

Preparation/use of data: graphical and tabular presentation

Data sources: Federal Statistical Office, GWK survey

Periodicity: annual

Help page: none

Monitoring Equal Opportunity

German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft – DFG)

Sectors: research funding

Topics/differentiation: application participation and success

Geographical reference: Germany

Preparation/use of data: graphical and tabular presentation

Data sources: DFG

Periodicity: annual

Help page: none

Research And Development Series

destatis

Sectors: universities, research organizations

Topics/differentiation: academic personnel

Geographical reference: Germany

Preparation/use of data: tabular presentation, data can be downloaded

Data sources: Federal Statistical Office

Periodicity: annual

Help page: https://www-genesis.destatis.de/genesis/online?operation=sprachwechsel&language=en

Institutions Of Higher Education Series

destatis

Sectors: higher education institutions

Topics/differentiation: first-year students, students, exams, staff in higher education, management in higher education

Geographical reference: Germany

Preparation/use of data: tabular presentation, data can be downloaded

Data sources: Federal Statistical Office

Periodicity: annual

Help page: https://www-genesis.destatis.de/genesis/online?operation=sprachwechsel&language=en

Gender-Report (link in German)

Gender Report Higher Education Institutions In North Rhine-Westphalia

Sectors: higher education institutions

Topics/differentiation: students, academic qualifications, academic personnel, committees, appointments, gender equality management, sexualized harassment/violence, gender pay gap

Geographical reference: North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW)

Preparation/use of data: graphical and tabular presentation

Data sources: Federal Statistical Office, State Statistical Office, survey among NRW universities

Periodicity: every 3 years

Help page: none

Statistics Portal (link in German)

Gender Report Of Higher Education Institutions In North Rhine-Westphalia

Sectors: higher education institutions

Topics/differentiation: students, academic qualifications, academic personnel, committees, tools for calculating the gender equality rate and the institution's profile

Geographical reference: North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW)

Preparation/use of data: tabular presentation, data can be downloaded

Data sources: State Statistical Office

Periodicity: annual

Help page: none in English

Data Tool "Komm, mach MINT" (link in German)

Komm, mach MINT

Sectors: higher education institutions

Topics/differentiation: first-year students, students and graduates in STEM

Geographical reference: Germany

Preparation/use of data: graphical and tabular presentation

Data sources: Federal Statistical Office

Periodicity: annual

Help page: none in English

 

International

Eurostat

Eurostat

Sectors: universities, research organizations, industrial research

Topics/differentiation:  >> “Science and technology” >> “Research and development” >> “R&D personnel” >> “Education and training” >> “Participation” >> “Pupils and students” >> “Tertiary education”

Geographical reference: EU (international comparison)

Preparation/use of data: tabular presentation, data can be downloaded

Data sources: Eurostat

Periodicity: annual

Help page: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/help/first-visit

Gender Monitoring Of Project Funding (link in German)

Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF)

Sectors: research funding

Topics/differentiation:  approved research grants

Geographical reference: Switzerland

Preparation/use of data: graphical presentation and multivariate analysis of the chances of success (logistic regression)

Data sources: SNF

Periodicity: not specified

Help page: none

Gender Statistics Database

European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE)

Sectors: universities, research organizations, industrial research

Topics/differentiation: >> “Thematic areas” >> “Research, Science, digital society” >> “Science and technology”: academic personnel, academic publications, innovation and invention

Geographical reference: EU

Preparation/use of data: graphical and tabular presentation

Data sources: Eurostat, She Figures

Periodicity: annual

Help page: https://eige.europa.eu/gender-statistics/dgs/faqs

Gender Monitoring Of Research Organizations (link in German)

JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH

Sectors: research organizations located in STEM

Topics/differentiation: academic personnel, employment, gender pay gap, committees

Geographical reference: Austria

Preparation/use of data: graphical and tabular presentation

Data sources: Gender equality survey JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH

Periodicity: not specified

Help page: none

She Figures

European Commission

Sectors: universities, research organizations, industrial research

Topics/differentiation: degrees, academic qualification, academic personnel, committees, gender pay gap, conditions of employment, international mobility, bibliometrics, research funding

Geographical reference: EU

Preparation/use of data: graphical and tabular presentation

Data sources: Eurostat, MORE survey, MoRRI project, Women in Science database, Scopus, PATSTAT

Periodicity: every 3 years

Help page: https://ec.europa.eu/info/files/she-figures-2021-handbook_en

Statistical Database

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)

Sectors: universities, industrial research

Topics/differentiation: >> “Education”: students, graduates; >> “Science and ICT”: academic personnel in various fields

Geographical reference: 56 countries worldwide

Preparation/use of data: tabular presentation, data can be downloaded

Data sources: Eurostat

Periodicity: annual

Help page: for each table in the tab “About table”

Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in S&E

National Science Foundation (NSF)

Sectors: universities

Topics/differentiation: degrees (bachelor's, master's, doctorate), employment of researchers

Geographical reference: USA

Preparation/use of data: graphical and tabular presentation, data can be downloaded

Data sources: National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES), National Science Foundation; National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), Department of Education; Census Bureau, Department of Commerce; and Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department of Labor

Periodicity: every 2 years

Help page: https://ncses.nsf.gov/pubs/nsf19304/how-do-i