Eurobarometer Data Service

Attitude towards the Common European Currency

Is the respondent 'for' or 'against' a common European currency (single currency) replacing the national currencies in all EC / EU member states

[See notes for exact question wording over time.]

Starting with Eurobaromerer 61

What is your opinion on each of the following statements? Please tell me for each statement whether you are for or against it ... A European Monetary Union with one single currency, the EURO ...

ZA Study Number Eurobarometer Fieldwork Month Fieldwork Year Question Number Variable Name (1)
0626 ECS70 2-3 1970 Q.14a (2) V27
0990 6 11 1976 Q.174 (3) V111
1541 23 3-4 1985 Q.155 (5) V34
1715 30 10-11 1988 Q.443_3 (7) V565
1960 34.0 10-11 1990 Q.57_9 (8) V157
2031 35.0 3 1991 Q.41_7 (8) V90
2081 36 10-11 1991 Q.45_7 (8) V118
2141 37.0 3-4 1992 Q.59_2 (9) V395
2294 38.0 9-10 1992 Q.52_1 (10) V379
2294 38.0 9-10 1992 Q.53_2 (9) V394
2295 38.1 11 1992 Q.19_1 (10) V36
2295 38.1 11 1992 Q.75 (11) V344
2346 39.0 3-4 1993 Q.31_1 (10) V121
2346 39.0 3-4 1993 Q.32 (12) V141
2459 40 10-11 1993 Q.44_1 (10) V105
2490 41.0 4-5 1994 Q.28_1 (10) V87
2490 41.0 4-5 1994 Q.57 (13) V181
2491 41.1 6-7 1994 Q.44a (14) V137
2491 41.1 6-7 1994 Q.52 (12) V186
2563 42 11-12 1994 Q.44_1 (10) V171
2637 43.1 4-5 1995 Q.35_1 (10) V316
2689 44.0 10-11 1995 Q.7 (15) V62
2690 44.1 11-12 1995 Q.9 (15) V71
2828 44.2bis 2 1996 Q.31_1 (10) V420
2831 45.1 4-5 1996 Q.18 (15) V254
2898 46.0 10-11 1996 Q.12_1 (10) V52
2898 46.0 10-11 1996 Q.24  (15) V160
2899 46.1 10-11 1996 Q.23 (15) V153
2936 47.1 3-4 1997 Q.22_1 (10) V151
2959 48.0 10-11 1997 Q.25_1 (10) V188
2959 48.0 10-11 1997 Q.29 (15) V218
3052 49 4-5 1998 Q.25_1 (10) V157
3085 50.0 10-11 1998 Q.35_1 (10) V204
3171 51.0 3-4 1999 Q.20_1 (10)  
3204 52.0 10-11 1999 Q.33_1 (10)  
3296 53 4-5 2000 Q.32_1 (10)  
3387 54.1 11-12 2000 Q.29_1 (10)  
3507 55.1 4-5 2001 Q.28_1 (10)  
3627 56.2 10-11 2001 Q.31_1 (10)  
3639 57.1  3-5 2002 Q.25_1 (10)  
3979 CCEB2002.2  9-10 2002 Q.51 (16)   
3903 59.0  1-2 2003 Q.2_1 A (10)  
3904 59.1 3-4 2003 Q.23_1 (10)  
4159 CCEB2003.1 3-4 2003 Q9.C (17)   
3983 CCEB2003.2 5 2003 Q38.A  
3983 CCEB2003.2 5 2003 Q61 (16)  
3984 CCEB2003.3 6-7 2003 Q5.A  
3938 60.1 10-11 2003 Q.29_1 (10)   
3986 CCEB2003.4 10-11 2003 Q44.A  
3986 CCEB2003.4 10-11 2003 Q68 (16)  
4056 61 2-3 2004 Q.29_1    
4246 CCEB2004.1 2-3 2004 Q29.A  
4229 62.0 10-11 2004 Q.36_1  
4411 63.4 5-6 2005 QA28_1   
4414 64.2 10-11 2005 QA32_1    
4506 65.2 3-5 2006 QA30_1    
4526 66.1 9-10 2006 QA25_1   
4530 67.2 4-5 2007 QA27_1  
4565 68.1 9-11 2007 QA22_1   
4744 69.2 3-5 2008 QA37_1   
4819 70.1 10-11 2008 QA27_1   
4793 71.3 6-7 2009 QA15_1   
4994 72.4 10-11 2009 QA15_1   
5234 73.4 5 2010 QA20_1   
5449 74.2 11-12 2010 QA19_1   
5481 75.3 5 2011 QA19_1   
5567 76.3 11 2011 QA16_1   
5612 77.3 5 2012 QA19_1   
5685 78.1 11 2012 QA18_1   
5689 79.3 5 2013 QA20_1   
5876 80.1 11 2013 QA17_1   
5913 81.2 3 2014 QA11_1  
5928 81.4 5-6 2014 QA17_1  
5923 82.3 11 2014 QA19_1  
5998 83.3 5 2015 QA18_1  
6643 84.3 11 2015 QA15_1  
6694 85.2 5 2016 QA17_1  
6862 87.2 4 2017 QA6_1  
6863 87.3 5 2017 QA16_1  
6928 88.3 11 2017 QA16_1  
6963 89.1 3 2018 QA16_1  
7484 90.1 9 2018 QA12  
7489 90.3 11 2018 QA15_1  
7576 91.5 6-7 2019 QA16_1  
7601 92.3 11-12 2019 QB2_1  
7649 93.1 7-8 2020 QB2_1  

 

Is the respondent 'for' or 'against' a European Currency accepted as well as the national currencies?

[Please see notes for exact question wording.]

ZA Study Number Eurobarometer Fieldwork Month Fieldwork Year Question Number Variable Name (1)
1320 21 3-4 1984 Q.344_2 (4) V198
1541 23 3-4 1985 Q.156 (6) V35

 

Direction which the unification of Western Europe should take: a single European currency mentioned/not mentioned?

ZA Study Number Eurobarometer Fieldwork Month Fieldwork Year Question Number Variable Name (1)
1713 28 10-11 1987 Q.334_3 V419
1714 29 3-4 1988 Q.337_3 V366
1715 30 10-11 1988 Q.263_3 V393

 

(1) Please note that the variable names refer to the final ICPSR/ZA codebook editions, if available. Otherwise future changes of variable names (in parenthesis) are possible.

(2) "Would you be favourable to, opposed to, or indifferent to ... the currency being replaced by a European Currency?"

(3) "Are you for or against (or have no feelings one way or the other) to the following ... if the (NATIONAL CURRENCY) were replaced by a European Currency?"

(4) "Supposing you were asked to vote on the following ideas, which would then apply to all countries equally in the European Community. Would you vote for or against ... to have a European Currency as well as our own, with notes and coins that could be used everywhere in the ten countries of the European Community in the same way we use our own (currency) here in (country)?"

(5) "Would you be for, against, or not mind either way if (national currency) were replaced by a European Currency?"

(6) "And would you be for, against or not mind either way if, as well as the existing national currencies, one could freely use a European Currency which would be accepted in all the countries of the European Community?"

(7) "Are you be for or against creating between the twelve countries of the European Community by 1992 ... a single European Currency, the ECU?"

(8) "The Council of Heads of State and Governments of the European Community has called for intergovernmental conferences (this December) to discuss details of a European Economic and Monetary Union and of a Political Union. I am going to read you a number of statements. For each one please tell me whether you are in favour or not, of ... within this European Economic and Monetary Union, a single common currency replacing the different currencies in the Member States in five or six years time?"

(9) "Following the meeting in Maastricht, (EB38.0: "At the moment) the debate on European Union continues. Could you please tell me whether you are in favour or not, of ... within this European Economic and Monetary Union, a single common currency replacing the different currencies in the Member States in five or six years time?"

(10) (EB38.0/38.1/39.0: "Irrespective of other details of the Maastricht Treaty ...) "What is your opinion on each of the following proposals (statements)? Please tell me for each proposal, whether you are for it or against it: There should (EB49 ff.: has to) be (a European Monetary Union with) one single currency (the EURO) (replacing (by 1999) the (NATIONAL CURRENCY) and all other national currencies of the Member States of the European Community (European Union))."

(11) "Einmal angenommen, es kommt zu einer Währungsunion aller Staaten in der Europäischen Gemeinschaft, wären Sie dann dafür oder dagegen, wenn es keine D-Mark mehr geben würde, sondern nur noch ein einheitliches europäisches Geld?" (asked only in Germany)

(12) "The European Community plans to introduce a common currency by 1999 at latest, the ECU. Are you in favour of replacing the (NATIONAL CURRENCY) or are you not in favour?

(13) "In general, are you strongly in favour, somewhat in favour, somewhat opposed or strongly opposed to the ECU being adopted as the single currency?"

(14) "Some people think it would be best for (OUR COUNTRY) to keep it's own currency and make it more independent from other European currencies. Others think the best thing would be to create a common European currency. What do you think? Should (OUR COUNTRY) keep it's (NATIONAL CURRENCY) and make it more independent from other European currencies, or should we aim at one common European currency?" (10-point-scale)

(15) "Are you for or against the European Union having one European Currency in all member states, including (OUR COUNTRY)? That is, replacing the (NATIONAL CURRENCY) by the European currency. Are you ... very much for, somewhat for, somewhat against, very much against?"

(16) Different question wording and answer scale: "Are you for or against the European Union having one European currency in all
member states, including (OUR COUNTRY) once we have joined? That is, replacing the (NAME OF NATIONAL CURRENCY) by the European currency, the Euro ? Are you... ? 4 - very much for; 3 - somewhat for; 2 - somewhat against; 1 - very much against

(17)  "What is your opinion on each of the following statements? Please tell me for each statement whether you are for or against it. A European Monetary Union with one single currency, the EURO ...