Eurobarometer Data Service

National Identity - European Identity - World Identity

Eurobarometer 17 to 26, and 37.0 (questionnaire splitting) (4) (7)

Do you ever think of yourself not only as (nationality) citizen, but also as a citizen of Europe? Does this happen often, sometimes or never?

Eurobarometer 27 to 36, and 37.0 (questionnaire splitting) (4)

Do you ever think of yourself as not only (nationality), but also European? Does this happen often, sometimes or never?

Eurobarometer 64.2 (new follow up question)

And do you ever think of yourself as citizen of the world? Does this happen often, sometimes or never?

Reference of interest: UK-DA case study: When do people feel European? European identity, EU attitudes, and questionnaire design. Author: Robert Johns, University of Strathclyde. Date: January 2008 - May 2008.

 

ZA Study Number Eurobarometer Fieldwork Month Fieldwork Year Question Number Variable Name (1)
1208 17 3-4 1982 Q.170 V111
1318 19 3-4 1983 Q.239 V153
1542 24 10-11 1985 Q.164 V26
1544 26 10-11 1986 Q.166 V67
1712 27 4 1987 Q.268 V295
1715 30 10-11 1988 Q.414 V524
1750 31 3-4 1989 Q.377 V276
1753 33 3-4 1990 Q.18 V40
2031 35.0 3 1991 Q.13 V31
2081 36 10-11 1991 Q.33 V95
2141 37.0 3-4 1992 Q.33 V228/V229
4414 64.2 10-11 2005 QA39 / QA43  
4526 66.1 9-10 2006 QA30  

 

Eurobarometer 37 ff., CCEB

In the near future do you see yourself as ... ?

Starting with Eurobarometer 80.1

Do you see yourself as ... ?

  1. (NATIONALITY) only 
  2. (NATIONALITY) and European 
  3. European and (NATIONALITY) 
  4. European only

Eurobarometer 61, CCEB2004.1 (questionnaire splitting)

  1. (NATIONALITY) only 
  2. (NATIONALITY) and European 
  3. European only

Eurobarometer 62.0 (questionnaire splitting)

  1. (NATIONALITY) only 
  2. firstly (NATIONALITY) and then European
  3. firstly European and then (NATIONALITY) 
  4. European only
  5. As (NATIONALITY) as European (SPONTANEOUS)

Eurobarometer 73.4 ff.

  1. (NATIONALITY) only 
  2. (NATIONALITY) and European
  3. European and (NATIONALITY) 
  4. European only
  5. None (SPONTANEOUS)
  6. Refusal (SPONTANEOUS)
ZA Study Number Eurobarometer Fieldwork Month Fieldwork Year Question Number Variable Name (1)
2141 37.0 3-4 1992 Q.33 V230
2459 40 10-11 1993 Q.36 V88
2563 42 11-12 1994 Q.22 V61
2637 43.1 4-5 1995 Q.23 V222
2490 44.1 11-12 1995 Q.25 V285
2828 44.2bis 2 1996 Q.17 (2) V111-V113
2898 46.0 10-11 1996 Q.10 V49
2936 47.1 3-4 1997 Q.19 V120
3052 49 3-4 1998 Q.17   V123
3085 50.0 10-11 1998 Q.22   V140
3204 52.0 10-11 1999 Q.9  
3296 53 4-5 2000 Q.28  
3387 54.1 11-12 2000 Q.23 (3)  
3978 CCEB2001.1 10 2001 Q.16   
3627 56.2 10-11 2001 Q.6 (3)  
3639 57.1 3-5 2002 Q.27 (3)  
3979 CCEB2002.2 9-10 2002 Q.16  
3693 58.1 10-11 2002 Q.32  
3904 59.1 3-4 2003 Q.12  
3983 CCEB2003.2 5 2003 Q.12  
3938 60.1 10-11 2003 Q.43  
3986 CCEB2003.4 10-11 2003 Q.14  
4056 61 2-3 2004 Q.38 (5)  
4246 CCEB2004.1 2-3 2004 Q.38a/b (5)  
4229 62.0 10-11 2004 Q.43 (6)  
4414 64.2 10-11 2005 QA40  
4529 67.1 2-3 2007 QA15  
5234 73.4 5 2010 QE1  
5596 76.4 12 2011 QA22  
5612 77.3 5 2012 QD5  
5613 77.4 6 2012 QP8  
5689 79.3 5 2013 QD4  
5876 80.1 11 2013 QD5  
5913 81.2 3 2014 QC2  
5928 81.4 5-6 2014 QD3  
5932 82.3 11 2014 QD3  
5998 83.3 5 2015 QD2  
6643 84.3 11 2015 QD3  
6694 85.2 5 2016 QD2  
6788 86.2 11 2016 QD3  
6863 87.3 5 2017 QD3  
6928 88.3 11 2017 QD3  
6963 89.1 3 2018 QD3  
7489 90.3 11 2018 QD3  

 

Eurobarometer 69.2 (NEW)

Thinking about this, to what extent do you personally feel you are ...  

  1. European
  2. (NATIONALITY)
  3. Inhabitant of your region
  4. A citizen of the world

Scale 1-4: to a great extent - somewhat - not really - not at all 

ZA Study Number Eurobarometer Fieldwork Month Fieldwork Year Question Number Variable Name (1)
4744 69.2 3-5 2008 QB1  
4973 71.3 6-7 2009 QE4  

 

Eurobarometer 73.4 (NEW)

For each of the following statements, please tell me to what extent it corresponds or not to your own opinion...

  • You feel you are a citizen of the EU
  • You know what your rights are as a citizen of the EU
  • You would like to know more about your rights as a citizen of the EU

Scale 1-4: yes definitely - yes to some extent - no, bot really - no, definitely not

ZA Study Number Eurobarometer Fieldwork Month Fieldwork Year Question Number Variable Name (1)
5234 73.4 5 2010 QE2_1(8)  
5481 75.3 5 2011 QD4_1  
5612 77.3 5 2012 QD3_1  
5685 78.1 11 2012 QD2_1  
5689 79.3 5 2013 QD2_1  
5876 80.1 11 2013 QD3_1  
5913 81.2 3 2014 QC1_1  
5928 81.4 5-6 2014 QD1_1  
5932 82.3 11 2014 QD2_1  
5998 83.3 5 2015 QD1_1  
6643 84.3 11 2015 QD2_1  
6694 85.2 5 2016 QD1_1  
6788 86.2 11 2016 QD2_1  
6863 87.3 5 2017 QD2_1  
6928 88.3 11 2017 QD2_1  
6963 89.1 3 2018 QD2_1  
7489 90.3 11 2018 QD2_1  
7562 91.2 3 2019 QA10  
7601 92.3 11-12 2019 QC2  
7649 93.1 7-8 2020 QC2  

(1) Please note that the variable names refer to the final ICPSR/ZA codebook editions, if available. 

(2) Different question: a) In the near future, do you see yourself above all as a citizen of the European Union, citizen of (OUR COUNTRY) or a citizen of your region? b) And which next, if any? c) And which next, if any?

(3) In addition and starting with Eurobarometer 54 a new question is introduced asking if the respondent is "very proud, fairly proud, not very proud, or not at all proud to be European" (see "national pride").

(4) Not available in the "Mannheim Eurobarometer Trend File 1970-1999".

(5) Question split with version A (four answer categories) and B (three answer categories - see above)

(6) Question split with version A (four answer categories) and B (five answer categories - see above)

(7) Another question on European Identity has been asked in the Flash-Eurobarometer series in the context of the EURO introduction: "Since using the EURO, do you personally feel a little more European Than before, a little less European than before or would you say that your feeling of being European has not changed?" (Flash Eurobarometer 139, 153, 165, 175, 193).  

(8) Based on Eurobarometer 71.3, QK7_3: "You feel you are a citizen of the EU" - "yes, rather" - "no, rather does not"