Eurobarometer Data Service

Respondents' sense of national / European identity

People differ in what they think it means to be (NATIONALITY). In your view, among the following, what do you think are the most important characteristics to be (NATIONALITY)?

And in terms of being European, among the following, what do you think are the most important characteristics?

  • To be christian
  • To share (NATIONALITY) / European cultural traditions
  • To be born in (COUNTRY) / Europe
  • To have at least one (NATIONALITY) / European parents
  • To feel (NATIONALITY) / European
  • [UNI-LANGUAGE COUNTRIES:] To master (COUNTRY LANGUAGE) [MULTI-LANGUAGE COUNTRIES:] To master one of the official languages of (OUR COUNTRY)  / any European language, in addition to your own language
  • To exercise citizen rights, for example voting in (OUR COUNTRY) / ... for example voting in the European Elections
  • To have been brought up in (OUR COUNTRY) / ... in a European Country 
  • Being active in any association or organization in (OUR COUNTRY) / ... involving other EU citizens
ZA Study Number Eurobarometer Fieldwork Month Fieldwork Year Question Number Variable Name (1)
4973 71.3 6-7 2009 QE2 / QE3  
5233 73.3 3-4 2010 QB1  

 

The European identity can be composed of several elements. In your opinion, which of the following are the most important elements that go to make up the European identity?

  • History / (73.3:) Common history
  • Geography
  • Democratic values / (starting with 77.4:) The values of democracy and freedom
  • (73.3 only:) A high level of social protection
  • Culture / (73.3:) Common culture
  • (73.3 only:) Common religious heritage
  • The single currency, the euro
  • The European anthem / (73.3:) Symbols: flag, hymn, motto "unity in diversity" 
  • The European flag / (73.3:) Symbols: flag, hymn, motto "unity in diversity"
  • The EU motto: "Unity in diversity" / (73.3:) Symbols: flag, hymn, motto "unity in diversity"
  • The success of the European economy (not in 73.3)
     
ZA Study Number Eurobarometer Fieldwork Month Fieldwork Year Question Number Variable Name (1)
4819 70.1 10-11 2008 QD21  
4973 71.3 6-7 2009 QE1  
5233 73.3 3-4 2010 QB2  
5612 77.3 5 2012 QD7  
5613 77.4 6 2012 QP9  
5875 79.5 6 2013 QP28  
5933 82.4 11-12 2014 QP11  
6596 84.1 9 2015 QP16  

 

In your opinion, among the following issues, which are those that most create a feeling of community among European Union citizens?

  • History 
  • Religion
  • Values
  • Geography
  • Languages
  • Legislation (EB 80.1 ff.: Laws; EB82.3 ff.: The rule of law)
  • Sports
  • Inventions, Science and Technology
  • Economy
  • Health care, education, pensions
  • Solidarity with poorer regions
  • Culture
  • Other
  • None, such a feeling does not exist (SPONTANEOUS)
  • None (SPONTANEOUS)

ZA Study Number

Eurobarometer Fieldwork Month Fieldwork Year Question Number Variable Name (1)
4819 67.2 10-11 2008 QA40  
5233 77.3 3-4 2010 QD9  
5689 79.3 5 2013 QD8  
5876 80.1 11 2013 QD9  
5928 81.4 5-6 2014 QD6  
5932 82.3 11 2014 QD6  
5998 83.3 5 2015 QD4  
6643 84.3 11 2015 QD6  
6788 86.2 11 2016 QD5  
6863 87.3 5 2017 QD6  
6928 88.3 11 2017 QD5  
6963 89.1 3 2018 QD5  
7489 90.3 11 2018 QD5  
7576 91.5 6-7 2019 QD5  
7601 92.3 11-12 2019 QC4  
7649 93.1 7-8 2020 QC4  
7780 94.3 2-3 2021 QC4  

(1) Please note that the variable names refer to the final ICPSR/ZA codebook editions, if available.