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Eurobarometer Data Service

Eurobarometer 40     October-November 1993     ZA No.  2459

Poverty and Social Exclusion

Special Topics:

  • Attitudes towards common EU policy issues
  • Voting for the next European Elections 1994
  • The European Court of Justice
  • Public security and attitudes towards police forces
  • Attitudes towards other EU countries (trustworthy...) and the Single European Market
  • Perception and image of poverty and social exclusion

Documents and Data:


  • See also special release: European Election Study 1994
  • Current archive dataset version / update: v1.1.0 (2012)
  • Errata:
    • RELIGIOUS DENOMINATION is documented as "Orthodox" for code '3' in the original Eurobarometer codebooks and basic questionnaires starting with survey number 32. This is not correct in the case of the NETHERLANDS. Dutch respondents have been asked for the Protestant section "Gereformeerd" in the place of "Orthodox". Corrected in the ZA codebooks for deliveries after March 16, 1999.
    • Starting with Eurobarometer 34 and up to survey 61, NUTS 1 level data (REGION II) for the NETHERLANDS are not (re-)coded
      in accordance with the official EUROSTAT nomenclature of territorial unit statistics. The NUTS 2 level province ZEELAND should be
      coded as belonging to NUTS 1 region (landsdel) WEST instead of SOUTH Netherlands. (ZA editions will be corrected from EB 53 onwards, November 11, 2005) 
    • D29 INCOME HH QUARTILES (V598): The category order as documented (s2459cdb.pdf) is reversed. The highest quartile should be assigned to code '1' and the lowest quartile to code '4'. The SPSS data set is correct. (January 30, 2007).  
    • C1 OPINION LEADERSHIP INDEX (V627): The category order as documented (s2459cdb.pdf) is reversed. The highest index (++) should be assigned to code '4' and the lowest (--) to code '1'. The SPSS data set is correct. (January 30, 2007).


  • European Commission: EUROBAROMETER 40. Public Opinion in the European Community. Brussels, December 1993. (Also available in German).

  • Nathalie Rigaux, in liaison with the European Commission, Directorate General V: The Perception of Poverty and Social Exclusion in Europe (La perception de la pauvreté et de l'exclusion sociale en Europe). Brussels, 1994.

  • Cees van der Eijk, Mark N. Franklin Choosing Europe? The European Electorate and National Politics in the Face of Union. The University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, 1996 (ISBN 0-472-10357-1)

  • European Journal of Political Research. Special Issue: Political Representation in the European Parliament. Volume 32, No. 2 (October 1997)

  • European Commission: Europeans and the European Court of Justice in 1992. Results of Eurobarometer surveys no. 38.0 and 40. Brussels, 1994