Survey Guidelines

PD Dr. Natalja Menold

Survey Design and Methodology
Fragebogendesign & -evaluation

+49 (621) 1246-286

Rating Scales

Rating scales are among the most important and most frequently used instruments in social science data collection. There is an extensive body of methodological research on the design of rating scales and on their (psycho-)metric properties. In this contribution, the authors address individual aspects of questionnaire construction with regard to rating scales. A brief overview of the current state of research is given, a number of accounts of practical experiences are presented, and – to the extent that this is possible – recommendations for the design of rating scales are given.

English-language version (4.2 MB)

Version 2.0; doi: 10.15465/gesis-sg_en_015

German-language version (150 KB)

Version 1.1; doi: 10.15465/gesis-sg_015

Earlier version: Version 1.0; doi: 10.15465/sdm-sg_015


Menold, N., & Bogner, K. (2016). Design of Rating Scales in Questionnaires. GESIS Survey Guidelines. Mannheim, Germany: GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences. doi: 10.15465/gesis-sg_en_015