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Survey Guidelines

Mixed-Mode Surveys

Mixing survey modes for data collection can have positive effects on response rates, sample balance, and survey costs. However, data collected in multiple modes may also suffer from mode measurement effects. In this Survey Guideline, we give an overview of empirical evidence related to the benefits and drawbacks of using multiple modes for data collection and outline some recommendations for the implementation of mixed-mode surveys. Finally, we provide a brief outlook on the perspectives of mixed-mode surveys in the survey landscape.

Stadtmüller, Sven, Beuthner, Christoph, & Silber, Henning (2021).  Mixed-Mode Surveys. Mannheim, GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences (GESIS- Survey Guidelines). DOI: 10.15465/gesis-sg_en_038

Weiß, B., Silber, H., Struminskaya, B., & Durrant, G. (2019). Mobile Befragungen. In N. Baur, & J. Blasius (Eds.), Handbuch Methoden der empirischen Sozialforschung (pp. 801-812). Springer VS: Wiesbaden. doi: 10.1007/978-3-658-21308-4_55.

Beuthner, Christoph, Sven Stadtmüller, Gummer Tobias, Pablo Christmann, Rebekka Kluge, Matthias Sand, and Henning Silber. 2020. "Increasing response rates in self-administered mixed-mode surveys : An experiment on incentives and mode sequence." Virtual: AAPOR 75th Annual Conference, 11.06.2020.