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Survey Guidelines

Web Paradata in Survey Research

Paradata are information about the primary survey data collection process. This guide is intended for survey practitioners who want to collect and use paradata in web surveys. The guideline focuses on a typology and possible applications of web paradata and practical implications regarding the collection, post-processing, and documentation of web paradata.

Kunz, T. & Hadler, P. (2020). Web Paradata in Survey Research. Mannheim, GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences (GESIS – Survey Guidelines). DOI: 10.15465/gesis-sg_037

Kunz, Tanja. 2020. "Paradata in survey research." In SAGE research methods foundations, edited by Paul Atkinson, Sara Delamont, Alexandru Cernat, Joseph W. Sakshaug, and Richard A. Williams, 1-7. London: SAGE Publications Ltd. doi:

Kunz, Tanja, and Tobias Gummer. 2020. "Understanding respondents’ attitudes toward web paradata use." Social Science Computer Review 38 (6): 739-753. doi:

Gummer, Tobias, and Tanja Kunz. 2019. "Relying on external information sources when answering knowledge questions in web surveys." Sociological Methods & Research online first. doi: