Survey Guidelines

Nonresponse Bias

Nonresponse is a source of error in surveys. In this contribution, the concept of nonresponse bias is explained and the connection between response rate and nonresponse bias is discussed. Moreover, different methods of determining nonresponse bias are presented and ways in which the problem of nonresponse bias can be tackled during data collection are addressed.

English-language version (94 kB)

Version 2.0; doi: 10.15465/gesis-sg_en_004

German-language version (218 kB)

Version 1.1; doi: 10.15465/gesis-sg_004

Earlier version: Version 1.0; doi: 10.15465/sdm-sg_004


Koch, A., & Blohm, M. (2016). Nonresponse Bias. GESIS Survey Guidelines. Mannheim, Germany: GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences. doi: 10.15465/gesis-sg_en_004