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International Social Survey Programme

Social Inequality

The ISSP Social Inequality module series comprises five surveys conducted in 1987, 1992, 1999, 2009 and 2019. Successive surveys are always partial replications of earlier surveys.

ISSP Social Inequality modules mainly deal with issues, such as attitudes towards income inequality, views on earnings and incomes, legitimation of inequality, career advancement by means of family background and networks, social cleavages and conflict among groups, and the current and past social position.

Please, note that ISSP Social Inequality data (so far modules I-IV) is also available as a cumulated data file, allowing for cross-national analyses over time.


Edlund, Jonas, Insa Bechert and Markus Quandt, eds. 2017. Social Inequality in the Eyes of the Public. A Collection of Analyses Based on ISSP Data 1987-2009. GESIS Schriftenreihe 17. Cologne: GESIS.

Participating countries




2009 2019
Argentina       X  
Australia X X X X X
Austria X X X X X
Belgium       X  
Brazil     (X)    
Bulgaria   X X X X
Canada   X X (X)  
Chile     X X X
China       X  
Croatia       X X
Cyprus     X X  
Czech Republic     X X X
Czechoslovakia     X**      
Denmark     (X) X X
Estonia       X  
Finland       X X
France     X X X
Germany  X* X X X X
Great Britain X X X X X
Hungary X X X X (X)
Iceland       X X
Ireland (X)   (X)    
Israel     X X X
Italy X X   X X
Japan     X X X
Latvia     X X  
Lithuania       X X
Netherlands X   (X) (X)  
New Zealand   X X X X
Northern Ireland     X    
Norway   X X X X
Philippines   X X X X
Poland X X X X  
Portugal     X X  
Russia   X X X X
Slovakia     X X  
Slovenia   X X X X
South Africa       X X
South Korea       X  
Spain   (X) X X  
Suriname         X
Sweden   X X X X
Switzerland X   (X) X X
Taiwan       X X
Thailand         X
Turkey       X  
Ukraine       X  
Venezuela       X X

(X) = Not integrated, but available on request

*: In 1987 Germany was still divided in West and East Germany and only the Western part of Germany (Federal Republic of Germany) participated in the module.
**: In 1992 it was Czechoslovakia (CSFR) participating in the Social Inequality module. Since 1993 Czechoslovakia is split up into Slovakia and Czech Republic.