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Dataset: CIS 2008 - Cross-sectional


Community Innovation Survey 2008 (CIS 2008)


The survey results are weighted in order to adjust for the sampling design and for unit non-response to produce valid results for the target population. In the case of non-response, the weightings adjust for statistically significant differences in the proportion of each of the three mutually exclusive types of innovative firms. Additional auxiliary information is also incorporated, if it is considered that this enhances the accuracy of the estimates. The basic method for adjusting for different probabilities of selection used in the sampling process is to use the inverse of the sampling fraction i.e. using the number of enterprises or employees. This is based on the figure Nh/nh where Nh is the total number of enterprises/employees in stratum h of the population and nh is the number of enterprises/employees in the realised sample in stratum h of the population, assuming that each unit in the stratum had the same inclusion probability. This automatically adjusts the sample weights of the respondents to compensate for unit non-response. However, if a non-response analysis was carried out (and the results indicate that there is a difference between respondents and non-respondents), then the results of the non-response analysis are also used when calculating the final weighting factors. One approach is to divide each stratum into a number of response homogeneity groups with (assumed) equal response probabilities within groups. A second approach could be to use auxiliary information at the estimation stage for reducing the non-response bias.

The following two weights are normally used:
- Weight - Weighting factors,
- Weightnr - Weights corrected for non-response bias



The integrated CIS 2008 dataset includes data from 16 participating countries:

- Bulgaria,

- Cyprus

- Czech Republic

- Germany

- Estonia

- Spain

- Hungary

- Ireland

- Italy

- Lithuania

- Latvia

- Norway

- Portugal

- Romania

- Slovenia

- Slovakia

Total N=127674. Total number of variables = 143.

The Community Innovation Survey is one of the four surveys explicitly mentioned in the Commission Regulation 831/2002. This means that the microdata received from the CIS are of sufficient interest for user for getting disseminated also as anonymised microdata set. The most applied anonymisation method is to reduce the level of detail of categorical variables by combining categories in order to obtain categories with more observations. Global recoding and micro aggregation were used. Based on previous experiences, the microdata for each country were aggregated to the NACE 2 digit level and to 3 size classes (small, medium, large). The regional dimension was collapsed and data were only aggregated at country level. Enterprise identifiers were removed. In addition to the enterprise identifier (Id), stratum A (strA) and stratum B (StrB) were removed from the database. Some other variables were recoded: Size06, Size08,C_Ho, Country, Nace_pro, Weight. The micro-aggregated database consists of the same number of units as kept in the original database. Formal identifiers such as the name or exact address of the enterprise are not part of the micro-aggregated database. The metric variables which were micro-aggregated: turnover in 2006, turnover in 2008, expenditure in intramural RD, expenditure in extramural RD, expenditure in acquisition of machinery, expenditure in other external knowledge and total innovation expenditure.


Eurostat 2009. The Community Innovation Survey 2008 Methodological recommendations. Avaliable at: on the Eurostat CIS 2008 DVD.

Eurostat 2009. CIS 2008 GENERAL DATA STRUCTURE FOR TRANSMISSION TO EUROSTAT. Avaliable at: on the Eurostat CIS 2008 DVD.

Eurostat 2011. The Sixth Community Innovation Survey CIS 2008 Methodology Of Anonymisation. Avaliable at: on the Eurostat CIS 2008 DVD.


Variable List: CIS 2008 - Cross-sectional

ID - Name of enterprise
COUNTRY - Country
Nace_pro - Main activity
GP - Enterprise part of a group
c_Ho - Country of head office
MARLOC - Local/regional market (within country)
MARNAT - National market (other regions of country)
MAREUR - Other EU/EFTA/CC market
MAROTH - All other countries
LARMAR - Largest market in terms of turnover between 2006 and 2008
INPDGD - Introduced onto the market a new or significantly improved good
INPDSV - Introduced onto the market a new or significantly improved service
INPDTW - Who mainly developed these products
NEWMKT - Did the enterprise introduce a product new to the market
NEWFRM - Did the enterprise introduce a product new to the firm
TURNMAR - % of turnover in new or improved products introduced during 2006-2008 that were new to the market
TURNIN - % of turnover in new or improved products introduced during 2006-2008 that were only new to the firm
TURNUNG - % of turnover in unchanged or marginally modified products during 2006-2008
INPSPD - Introduced onto the market a new or significantly improved method of production
INPSLG - Introduced onto the market a new or significantly improved logistic, delivery or distribution system
INPSSU - Introduced onto the market a new or significantly improved supporting activities
INPCSW - Who mainly developed these processes
INPSNM - Were any of your process innovations introduced between 2006 and 2008 new to your market
INABA - Abandoned or suspended before completion
INONG - Still ongoing at the end of the 2008
RRDIN - Engagement in intramural R&D
RDENG - Type of engagement in R&D
RRDEX - Engagement in extramural R&D
RMAC - Engagement in acquisition of machinery
ROEK - Engagement in acquisition of external knowledge
RTR - Engagement in training for innovative activities
RMAR - Engagement in market introduction of innovation
RPRE - Engagement in other preparation
RRDINXm - Expenditure in intramural R&D
RRDEXXm - Purchase of extramural R&D
RMACXm - Expenditure in acquisition of machinery
ROEKXm - Expenditure in acquisition of external knowledge
RTOT_MSK - Total of these four innovation expenditure categories
FUNLOC - Public funding from local or regional authorities
FUNGMT - Public funding from central government
FUNEU - Public funding from the EU
FUNRTD - Funding from EU's 4th, 5th, 6th or 7th Framework Programme for RTD
SENTG - Sources from within the enterprise or enterprise group
SSUP - Sources from Suppliers of equipment, materials, etc.
SCLI - Sources from Clients or customers
SCOM - Sources from Competitors and other enterprises of same industry
SINS - Sources from consultants, commercial labs or private R&D institutes
SUNI - Sources from Universities or other higher education institutes
SGMT - Sources from Government or public research institutes
SCON - Sources from professional conferences, trade fairs, exhibitions
SJOU - Sources from Scientific journals, trade/scientific publications
SPRO - Sources from Professional and industry associations
CO - Cooperation arrangements on innovation activities
CO11 - Other enterprises within enterprise group : National
CO12 - Other enterprises within enterprise group : EU/EFTA/EU-CC
CO13 - Other enterprises within enterprise group : US
CO14 - Other enterprises within enterprise group : China or India
CO15 - Other enterprises within enterprise group : Other countries
CO21 - Suppliers of equipment, etc. : National
CO22 - Suppliers of equipment, etc. : EU/EFTA/EU-CC
CO23 - Suppliers of equipment, etc. : US
CO24 - Suppliers of equipment, etc. : China or India
CO25 - Suppliers of equipment, etc. : Other countries
CO31 - Clients or customers : National
CO32 - Clients or customers : EU/EFTA/EU-CC
CO33 - Clients or customers : US
CO34 - Clients or customers : China or India
CO35 - Clients or customers : Other countries
CO41 - Competitors or other firms … : National
CO42 - Competitors or other firms … : EU/EFTA/EU-CC
CO43 - Competitors or other firms … : US
CO44 - Competitors or other firms … : China or India
CO45 - Competitors or other firms … : Other countries
CO51 - Consultants, commercial labs, private R&D institutes : National
CO52 - Consultants, commercial labs, private R&D institutes : EU/EFTA/EU-CC
CO53 - Consultants, commercial labs, private R&D institutes : US
CO54 - Consultants, commercial labs, private R&D institutes : China or India
CO55 - Consultants, commercial labs, private R&D institutes : Other countries
CO61 - Universities or other … : National
CO62 - Universities or other … : EU/EFTA/EU-CC
CO63 - Universities or other … : US
CO64 - Universities or other … : China or India
CO65 - Universities or other … : Other countries
CO71 - Government or public research institutes: National
CO72 - Government or public research institutes: EU/EFTA/EU-CC
CO73 - Government or public research institutes: US
CO74 - Government or public research institutes: China or India
CO75 - Government or public research institutes: Other countries
PMOS - Most important co-operation partner
ORANGE - Increased range of goods or services
OREPL - Replace outdated products or processes
OENMK - Enter new markets
OIMKS - Increase market share
OQUA - Improve quality of goods or services
OFLEX - Improve flexibility for producing goods or services
OCAP - Increase capacity for producing goods or services
OHES - Improve health and safety
OLBR - Reduce labour costs per unit output
ORGBUP - New business practices for organising work or procedures
ORGWKP - New methods of workplace organisation
ORGEXR - New methods of organising external relations
ORORED - Reduce time to respond to customer or supplier needs
OROABL - Improve ability to develop new products or processes
OROQUA - Improve quality of your goods or services
ORORCO - Reduce costs per unit output
OROCIN - Improved communication or information sharing
MKTDGP - Significant changes to the aesthetic design or packaging
MKTPDP - New media or techniques for product promotion
MKTPDL - New methods for product placement or sales channels
MKTPRI - New methods of pricing goods or services
OMKTS - Increase or maintain market share
OMKTCG - Introduce products to new customer groups
OMKTGM - Introduce products to new geographic markets
ECOMAT - Reduced material use per unit of output
ECOEN - Reduced energy use per unit of output
ECOCO - Reduced CO2 ‘footprint’ (total CO2 production) by your enterprise
ECOSUB - Replaced materials with less polluting or hazardous substitutes
ECOPOL - Reduced soil, water, noise, or air pollution
ECOREC - Recycled waste, water, or materials
ECOENU - Reduced energy use
ECOPOS - Reduced air, water, soil or noise pollution
ECOREA - Improved recycling of product after use
ENREG - Existing environmental regulations or taxes on pollution
ENREGF - Environmental regulations or taxes that you expected to be introduced in the future
ENGRA - Availability of government grants, subsidies or other financial incentives for environmental innovation
ENDEM - Current or expected market demand from your customers for environmental innovations
ENAGR - Voluntary codes or agreements for environmental good practice within your sector
ENVID - Procedures in place to regularly identify and reduce enterprise’s environmental impacts
TURN06m - Total turnover in 2006
TURN08m - Total turnover in 2008
size06 - Total number of employees in 2006
size08 - Total number of employees in 2008
WEIGHT - Weight
weightnr - Weighting factors