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Study: MZ 1993

Additional Programs

  • General and further education (Sampling Fraction: 1% )
  • Additional information on foreigners living in Germany (Sampling Fraction: 1% )

Year Specific Documentation

  • Microcensus Scientific Use File 1993 Documentation and Data Preparation [in German] [.zip]
  • Comparison of the Microcensus 1989, 1991, 1993 und 1995 [in German] [.pdf]

Cross-sectional Data

Sampling Units


Achieved Sample Size


Units Of Observation

  • Persons (in private households and collective dwellings)
  • Households

Units Of Analysis

  • Persons
  • Families
  • Households

Start Date


End Date


Participation Mandatory


Design Weight: Target

Dwelling, Household, Persons

Design Weight: Method

The Microcensus is a single-stage, stratified cluster sample with a uniform sampling fraction for all strata. As a rule, the sampling fraction is 1 %; it applies to all sampling units (dwellings, households, persons). Until 2004, by contrast, variables of the supplementary and additional programmes and the European Union Labour Force Surveys (EU-LFS) were implemented using smaller sampling fractions, which sometimes varied from stratum to stratum. For example, from 1996–2004 the national average was around 0.45% but the sampling fractions at administrative-district (Regierungsbezirk) level varied (0.4 %, 0.6 %, 0.8 %, or 1 %).

Because the selection probability of the Scientific Use File (SUF) basically remains constant at 70%, design weights can be created on the basis of the inverses of the sampling fractions of the Microcensus (1 %) and the Scientific Use File (70 %): w = 1 / (0.01 * 0.7).

Non-response Weight: Method

In the Microcensus, as in all surveys, the sampling plan cannot be realised fully. Hence, undercoverage occurs in the form of non-response on the part of the households to be surveyed. Because households and their members are obliged by law to provide information for the Microcensus, non-response is due mainly to the fact that households could not be reached during the survey. Cases of non-response are corrected using the information that is available about the non-responding households.

From 1990 to 2004, 19 compensation classes were created at the level of regional subgroups (at least 100,000 inhabitants). These compensation classes were made up of a combination of the following variables: household size, nationality of the reference person of the household, right of occupancy of the reference person of the household (for Germans), or, in the case of single-person households, sex and age group. The compensation factor is the ratio of the households to be surveyed to the surveyed households (target figure divided by actual figure).

Coverage Adjustment Weight: Method

In contrast to compensation, adjustment is carried out at person level.

From 1990 to 2004, the sample results were adjusted to conform to benchmark figures from the intercensal population estimates at the level of the regional adjustment strata (at least 500,000 inhabitants on average) for the civilian population according to four classes: nationality (German, foreign national) x sex. The adjustment for regular soldiers/temporary career volunteers and persons doing military or community service is carried out at the level of the administrative districts of the federal states on the basis of inventory data of the Federal Ministry of Defence or the Federal Ministry of the Interior. The adjustment factor is the ratio of the target figure to the actual figure (i.e. target divided by actual), where the target figure is the intercensal population estimate and the actual figure is the Microcensus figure.

Final Weighting: Method

The final extrapolation factors result from the combination of the two-stage procedure of compensation and adjustment.

From 1990 to 2004, the final extrapolation factors were calculated by multiplying the household-related compensation factor by the person-related adjustment factor. In addition, a household factor was introduced that was calculated as the arithmetic mean of the person-related adjustment factors.

In the Scientific Use Files from 1989 or 1991 onwards, only the final extrapolation factors are included.

For the Scientific Use Files for the years 1989 to 1995, an extrapolation factor is available only at household level. However, test analyses have shown that using the household imputation factor for analyses at person level does not lead to significantly different results than using the correct person-related extrapolation factor.

For details, go to "Zur Abgrenzung der Bevölkerungs- und Erwerbskonzepte im Mikrozensus 1993" [.pdf] (in German)