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Gender and Social Stratification

Modern societies are characterized by a variety of processes of structural change. In researching this change, GESIS focuses on changing family forms and partnership structures as well as educational and labor market participation. The change in these and other areas of social structure is interdependent, but also related to wider social structures and values and linked to changes in life histories, life satisfaction, time use, and other aspects of social life. In examining these topics, the research in the fields “budget”, “labor market” and “family” is linked to the explanation of social inequality. The topics can be well examined with microdata of official statistics in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, both at the national level and in an international comparative perspective.

A key dimension of social structure and social inequality, which is related to almost all other features of social structure, is gender. As a cross-sectional category, gender is taken into account in the research of society. Our research interests focus on gender relations or gender-specific selection, inclusion and exclusion processes in the field of higher education and career paths. Specifically, changes and gender inequalities in the labor market "science" (employment conditions, gender pay gap), as well as gender-specific structures of career progression in connection with other dimensions of social inequality - where possible in a longitudinal perspective - are examined.

Learn more about our consulting and services:

  • Living Spaces (LebensRäume)

    Comprehensive information and data on the LebensRäume population survey


    Comprehensive information and data access to the pairfam relationship and family panel

  • Schneider, Silke L., Elena Chincarini, Elisabeth Liebau, Verena Ortmanns, Lisa Pagel, and Carina Schönmoser. 2023. Die Messung von Bildung bei Migrantinnen und Migranten in Umfragen. GESIS Survey Guidelines. Mannheim: GESIS. doi:
  • Lipinsky, Anke. 2023. "Sexuelle Belästigung an Hochschulen keine Ausnahme: Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, Interview von Christopher Onkelbach." 2023-04-05.
  • Pforr, Klaus. 2023. "Session H: Social Policy." 8th European User Conference for EU-Microdata, Universität Mannheim, Mannheim, 2023-03-17 - 2023-03-17.
  • Pforr, Klaus. 2023. "There goes the 'Auswahlbezirk': Estimation of 'White-Flight'-Effects using the German Microcensu." Workshop "Current Perspectives of Spatial Mobilities", IAB , Nürnberg, 2023-03-30.
  • Pforr, Klaus, Johanna Jung, and Barbara Felderer. 2023. "Describing the socio-demographic structure of social transfers across Europe with regression trees." Frühjahrstagung der DGS-Sektion „Soziale Ungleichheit und Sozialstrukturanalyse", GESIS - Leibniz-Institut für Sozialwissenschaften, Mannheim, 2023-03-24.