Stability and Change in Adult Competencies (SCACOM)

Patterns and Predictors of Literacy and Numeracy Development

Team: Britta Gauly, Ai Miyamoto, Dr. Nivedita Bhaktha
Leader: Dr. Clemens Lechner
Scientific unit: Abt. Survey Design and Methodology (SDM), Team Scale Development and Documentation (SDD)


In the light of globalization, technological progress, and demographic ageing, continuing education and professional development over the entire lifespan are crucial to meet the changing skill requirements of today's labor market. However, little is known about how competencies such as literacy (i.e., the ability to understand and apply information from written texts) and numeracy (i.e., the ability to understand and apply mathematical information) that are needed to function effectively in today’s societies develop during adulthood. Even less is known about the potential drivers of gains and losses in adult competencies. Moreover, the existing evidence is predominantly cross-sectional.

The advent of two recent German large-scale panel studies – the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS, Starting Cohort 6 – Adults) and the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competency with its longitudinal extension (PIAAC-L) – offers a unique opportunity to fill this empirical void. Both NEPS and PIAAC-L offer repeated measures of reading competence (literacy) and mathematical competence (numeracy), covering six (three) years of adulthood. Harnessing the potential both these data sources, our project aims to shed light on three fundamental questions about adult competency development:

(1) How stable or malleable are competencies during adulthood, and does their plasticity differ across sociodemographic subgroups?

(2) What are the factors that shape lifelong learning processes? Our focus will be on occupational factors such as patterns of labor market participation, skill use on the job, and participation in continuing education and training.

(3) Which individual factors co-shape competency development? We will examine whether prior educational attainment, initial competency levels, and non-cognitive skills (i.e., personality traits such as Openness to Experience) predict gains and losses in adult competencies; and whether they moderate the effects of the occupational factors thereon.


01.04.2018 - 31.12.2020

Sponsored by


  • Prof. Dr. Stephen Reder, Portland University, USA