GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences: Go to homepage

Survey Instruments

Our research on Survey Instruments aims to increase the quality of measurement in surveys. Thus, we develop quality-tested data collection instruments, adapt existing instruments for their use as German-speaking instruments or we harmonize different instruments. We investigate the effects of questionnaire design in different modes of data collection and examine response styles. Furthermore we look at the response process by using behavioral data produced by eye tracking systems. So we are able to generate knowledge about these important cognitive processes.

Exemplary research topics are:

  • Harmonization of data collection instruments
  • Measurement of occupation in cross-cultural context
  • Development and validation of short scales for non-cognitive skills
  • New methods of cognitive pretesting, e.g. web probing and eye-tracking
  • Effects of questionnaire design on quality and equivalence of measurement
  • Relevance, structure and determinants of acquiescence
  • Estimation of reliability and validity with Structural Equation Models
  • Selection of items by means of Ant-Colony-Algorithms
  • Items & Scales

    Research tested items and scales or request us to develop new ones for your research project

  • Socio-structural variables

    Consulting on the measurement of socio-structural characteristics

  • Survey Instruments

    Consulting on questionnaire design, item and scale development, socio-structural characteristics and questionnaire translations

  • Translations

    Consultation on the translation of multilingual and international questionnaires

  • Rammstedt, Beatrice, David J. Grüning, and Clemens M. Lechner. 2022. "Measuring Growth Mindset: Validation of a Three-Item and a Single-Item Scale in Adolescents and Adults." European Journal of Psychological Assessment online first. doi:
  • Lechner, Clemens, Thomas Knopf, Christopher Napolitano, Beatrice Rammstedt, Brent Roberts, Christopher Soto, and Marion Spengler. 2022. "The Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Skills Inventory (BESSI): Psychometric properties of a German-language adaptation, temporal stabilities of the skills, and associations with personality and intelligence." Journal of Intelligence 10 (3): 63.
  • Groskurth, Katharina, Désirée Nießen, Beatrice Rammstedt, and Clemens Lechner. 2022. "The Impulsive Behavior Short Scale–8 (I-8): A comprehensive validation of the English-language adaptation ." PLoS ONE 17 (9): e0273801. doi:
  • Nießen, Désirée, Isabelle Schmidt, Katharina Groskurth, Beatrice Rammstedt, and Clemens Lechner. 2022. "The Internal–External Locus of Control Short Scale–4 (IE-4): A comprehensive validation of the English-language adaptation." PLoS ONE 17 (7): e0271289. doi:
  • Nießen, Désirée, Katharina Groskurth, Christoph J. Kemper, Beatrice Rammstedt, and Clemens Lechner. 2022. "The Optimism–Pessimism Short Scale–2 (SOP2): A comprehensive validation of the English-language adaptation." Measurement Instruments for the Social Sciences (4): 1. doi: