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Survey Instruments

Our research on Survey Instruments aims to increase the quality of measurement in surveys. Thus, we develop quality-tested data collection instruments, adapt existing instruments for their use as German-speaking instruments or we harmonize different instruments. We investigate the effects of questionnaire design in different modes of data collection and examine response styles. Furthermore we look at the response process by using behavioral data produced by eye tracking systems. So we are able to generate knowledge about these important cognitive processes.

Exemplary research topics are:

  • Harmonization of data collection instruments
  • Measurement of occupation in cross-cultural context
  • Development and validation of short scales for non-cognitive skills
  • New methods of cognitive pretesting, e.g. web probing and eye-tracking
  • Effects of questionnaire design on quality and equivalence of measurement
  • Relevance, structure and determinants of acquiescence
  • Estimation of reliability and validity with Structural Equation Models
  • Selection of items by means of Ant-Colony-Algorithms

Learn more about our consulting and services:

  • Items and Scales

    Research tested items and scales or request us to develop new ones for your research project

  • Socio-structural variables

    Consulting on the measurement of socio-structural characteristics

  • Survey Instruments

    Consulting on questionnaire design, item and scale development, socio-structural characteristics and questionnaire translations

  • Translations

    Consultation on the translation of multilingual and international questionnaires

  • Höhne, Jan Karem, Conrad Ziller, and Timo Lenzner. 2023. "Investigating respondents' willingness to participate in video-based web surveys." International Journal of Market Research online first. doi:
  • Neuert, Cornelia, and Tobias Gummer. 2023. "Introducing the Validation of Data Quality Indicators Through Re-Classification: The example of SQP and pretest surveys." International Journal of Market Research Online first. doi:
  • Hadler, Patricia. 2023. "The effects of open-ended probes on closed survey questions in web surveys." Sociological Methods & Research Online First. doi:
  • Schneider, Silke L., Elena Chincarini, Elisabeth Liebau, Verena Ortmanns, Lisa Pagel, and Carina Schönmoser. 2023. Die Messung von Bildung bei Migrantinnen und Migranten in Umfragen. GESIS Survey Guidelines. Mannheim: GESIS. doi:
  • Palm, Lennart, Silke L. Schneider, and Sarah Müller. 2023. "Vergleich der Empfehlungen zur Erhebung sozio-demographischer Merkmale in epidemiologischen und sozialwissenschaftlichen Umfragen." doi: