Measurement equivalence of a new scale to measure basic human values

March 12, 2013

Prof. Dr. Eldad Davidov und Dr. Jan Cieciuch


Many previous studies on human values reported problems with measurement invariance of values measured by PVQ (e.g. Davidov, Schmidt & Schwartz, 2008). Recently Schwartz et al. (2012) proposed a refinement of the value theory and a new questionnaire (PVQ-5x) to measure 19 more narrowly defined values. We test the measurement invariance properties of the PVQ-5x across eight countries (Finland, Germany, Israel, Italy, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal and Switzerland). Two types of analysis were performed: the first one assuming the Likert-scale used in PVQ-5x as continuous and the second one accounting for ordinality of the Likert-scale. Configural invariance is established for all 19 values measured by PVQ-5x. Metric invariance is established for all values (with some exceptions for single countries). Scalar measurement invariance is supported for the following ten values across nearly all countries: benevolence caring, universalism tolerance, universalism concern, universalism nature, hedonism, power dominance, power resources, and security personal. Both analyses lead to the same conclusion: Measurement invariance properties of the new PVQ is significantly better than the properties of the previous PVQ version.