Successful survey research requires best-practice items and scales. GESIS assists researchers by providing empirically tested measurement instruments in the Collection of Items and Scales for the Social Sciences (ZIS) as well as GESIS's Open Access Journal Measurement Instruments for the Social Sciences (with BMC/Springer Nature as a publisher), and by developing new measurement instruments. We also advise researchers on the development, evaluation and selection of measurement instruments for the social sciences.
A set of widely applied questionnaires have been well documented in the Collection of Items and Scales for the Social Sciences (ZIS) (German "ZIS" = Zusammenstellung sozialwissenschaftlicher Items und Skalen).
ZIS is a cost-free open-access publication system for
We publish English, German and multilingual instruments as well as information on their development, quality criteria and theoretical background. If instruments have been implemented in publicly available surveys, their documentation is linked to publicly accessible datasets. Our main focus is on measurement instruments – both newly developed and established instruments – that can be implemented in heterogeneous samples for surveys in the social sciences. The published measurement instruments are empirically tested, and their quality criteria are fully documented. The Collection of Items and Scales for the Social Science (ZIS) is an open-access service. All published instruments can be freely downloaded and used for the purpose of non-commercial research (only).
ZIS currently contains more than 250 survey instruments for the social sciences, e.g. items for measuring political attitudes or short scales for capturing psychological variables (such as personality).
Our ZIS scale repository is continually growing also internationally, partly due to using and hyperlinking to relevant articles that have been published in GESIS's Open Access Journal Measurement Instruments for the Social Science (MISS). Authors, who are interested in documenting their research first by publishing in an internationally visible scientific outlet with peer review und open science standards, are encouraged to submit their contribution to MISS.
|Scale||Name||Category||Language Documentation||Language Items||Author|
|WFCS||Work-Family Conflict Scale (ISSP)||Socialisation & family||English||German, English + 48 others||Breyer & Bluemke|
|NFC-Teens||German Need for Cognition Scale for older children and adolescents||Personality||German||German||Preckel|
|KPZ||Shortscale Political Cynicism||Political Attitudes and Behavior||German||German, English||Aichholzer & Kritzinger|
|TB||Shortscale Technology commitment||Culture, Religion, Education||German||German||Neyer, Felber & Gebhardt|
|HSS||Happiness and Satisfaction Scale (ISSP)||Personality||English||German, English + 40 others||Breyer & Voss|
|PANAS||German Version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (GESIS Panel)||Personality||German||German, English||Breyer & Bluemke|
|DMS||German Drive for Muscularity Scale||Public Health||German||German, English||Waldorf, Cordes, Vocks & McCreary|
|BFI-2||German Version of the Big Five Inventory 2||Personality||German||German, English||Danner, Rammstedt, Bluemke, Treiber, Berres, Soto & John|
|SFCQ||Short Form Cultural Intelligence Scale||Culture, Religion, Education||English||English + 4 others||Thomas et al.|
|SJT-TA||Situational Judgment Test for Teamwork||Job & Career||German||German|
Gatzka & Volmer
|EED||Emotional Empathic Drive Short Scale||Personality||English||German, English||Karlstetter|
|MOB-SWK||Scale for Assessing Teachers' Bullying-related Self-Efficacy||Personality||German||German||Fischer, Ulbricht & Bilz|
|SBS||Supernatural Belief Scale - German Version||Culture, Religion, Education||English||English, German + 2 others||Bluemke, Merkle, Jong & Halberstadt|
|EPriVerge||Attitudes towards Principles of Distributive Justice||Social Problems||German||German||Fischer, Baumert & Schmitt|
|ALLO-15||German Scale for Assessing Allophilia - the love of other cultures||Culture, Religion, Education||German||German||Slavchova, Fröhlich & Stürmer|
|GPS-K||A Short Scale of the General Procrastination Scale||Personality||German||German||Klingsieck & Fries|
|MBE||Media-based Empathy||Personality||German||German||Happ & Pfetsch|
|BOKX||Job- and Organizational Climate Index||Job & Career||German||German, English||Fischer et al.|
|KFI-30||Motivational Functions of Exploratory Cross-Cultural Contact||Culture, Religion, Education||German||German, English||Stürmer & Benbow|
|ZFS||Temporal Focus Scale||Personality||German||German||Geiger, Domenech & van der Meer|
|FIRE-P||Feedback Instrument for Rescue Forces Education - Examinations||Job and Career||German||German||Thielsch, Busjan & Frerichs|
|CCS-T-7||CCS-Based 7-Item Traditionalism Scale||Personality||English||English, German + 4 others||Partsch, Danner & Chernyshenko|
|CCLS||Cross-Cultural Loss Scale||Culture, Religion, Education||English||English||Wang, Wei, Zhao, Chuang & Li|
|MWS||Measurement Instrument for the Perception of Study Requirements||Culture, Religion, Education||German||German||Jänsch & Bosse|
|AkOrM||Acculturation Orientierung of Migrants||Culture, Religion, Education||German||German||Maehler|
|MISANDS||Measurment Instrument for the Identification of the Tendency to Drop out of a Dual Study Programme||Culture, Religion, Education||German||German||Deuer & Wild|
|FIRE-B||Feedback Instrument for Rescue Forces Education - Basic Training||Job and Career||German||German||Thielsch, Kläpker & Streppel|
|FIRE||Feedback Instrument for Rescue Forces Education||Job and Career||German||German||Schulte, Babiel, Messinger & Thielsch|
|MENI||Multigroup Ethnic and National Identity Measure||Culture, Religion, Education||German||German||Maehler|
Have you developed and empirically tested a measurement instrument yourself? Then why not publish your instrument in ZIS?
Each submission will be reviewed. The objective of reviewing to to optimize the quality of your publication. ZIS documentations are meant to observe the quality standards for the development, application, and evaluation of measurement instruments in social science survey research by the RatSWD and the test evaluation system by the test board of the Federation of German Psychologists' Associations.
Criteria for publication in ZIS are:
If you are interested in spreading your instrument via ZIS or have any questions on the publishing process, do not hesitate to contact the editors or scientific supervisors among the ZIS team.
The success of ZIS crucially depends on collaborative efforts from various sides including authors of scale documentations and scientists from the GESIS department Survey Design & Methodology (SDM):
GESIS develops new survey instruments for the social sciences. GESIS also provides assistance with shortening existing measurement instruments and developing new short scales.
Whereas the aforementioned items and scales have been published in German, the items are now also available in English. In near future they will be published, accompanied by evidence on measurement quality and comparability with the German source.
Scales on the following constructs are currently being evaluated in English, German, French, Spanish, Polish, and Japanese: personality, traditionalism, self control, self efficacy, integrity, social-emotional skills, (intellectual) curiosity, job orientations/work values, and job-related interests.
Rammstedt, Beatrice, and Constanze Beierlein. 2014. "Can't we make it any shorter? The limits of personality assessment and ways to overcome them." Journal of Individual Differences 35 (4): 212-220.