Successful survey research requires best-practice measurement instruments (items, scale, questionnaire, test, index). GESIS assists researchers by providing empirically tested measurement instruments in the Open Access Repository for Social and Behavioral Science Measurement Instruments (ZIS) (Zusammenstellung sozialwissenschaftlicher Items und Skalen). GESIS is continuously expanding the range of measurement instruments. This is done, on the one hand, by documenting survey instruments published in articles of the Measurement Instruments for the Social Sciences (with BMC/Springer Nature as publisher) and, on the other hand, by GESIS itself developing its own measurement instruments. In addition, we also advise researchers on the development, validation, and selection of measurement instruments for the social sciences.


Measuring instruments (items, scale, questionnaire, test, index) are systematically documented and evaluated in ZIS. The content of the repository focuses on German and multilingual instruments that can be used in social science surveys in heterogeneous population samples. 

The aims of ZIS are

  • the permanent accessibility and traceability of empirically tested measurement instruments,
  • the uniform documentation of the theoretical background, the development and the quality criteria
  • taking into account established scientific standards.

ZIS is both a publication service and a database with search function. The publication of measurement instruments and the use of measurement instruments for non-commercial research purposes are free.

More than 260 emprically tested measurement instruments (as of spring 2020) by researchers in the social sciences and measurement instruments developed by GESIS staff are published in ZIS. You will also find systematic documentation of measurement instruments from central social science surveys (ISSP, Allbus, ESS, PIAAC).  In addition, numerous measurement instruments can be found that are published in GESIS's Open Access Journal Measurement Instruments for the Social Science (MISS) (with BMC/Springer Nature as publisher).

Researchers who are interested in publishing their measurement instrument in an Open Science journal with peer review are invited to consider submitting it to MISS. If possible, all measurement instruments published in MISS will also be documented in ZIS, making them even more visible and searchable. 

Researchers who are primarily interested in the citability, visibility, and findability of their instrument and who would like a low-threshold and internal peer review procedure with specific advice on quality assurance of their documentation can alternatively submit the documentation of the instrument directly in ZIS.


ScaleNameCategoryLanguage DocumentationLanguage ItemsAuthor
WFCSWork-Family Conflict Scale (ISSP)Socialisation & familyEnglishGerman, English + 48 othersBreyer & Bluemke
NFC-TeensGerman Need for Cognition Scale for older children and adolescentsPersonalityGermanGermanPreckel
KPZShortscale Political Cynicism Political Attitudes and BehaviorGermanGerman, EnglishAichholzer & Kritzinger
TBShortscale Technology commitmentCulture, Religion, EducationGermanGermanNeyer, Felber & Gebhardt
HSSHappiness and Satisfaction Scale (ISSP) PersonalityEnglishGerman, English + 40 othersBreyer & Voss
PANASGerman Version of the  Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (GESIS Panel) PersonalityGermanGerman, EnglishBreyer & Bluemke
DMSGerman Drive for Muscularity Scale Public HealthGermanGerman, EnglishWaldorf, Cordes, Vocks & McCreary
BFI-2German Version of the Big Five Inventory 2PersonalityGermanGerman, EnglishDanner, Rammstedt, Bluemke, Treiber, Berres, Soto & John
SFCQShort Form Cultural Intelligence ScaleCulture, Religion, EducationEnglishEnglish + 4 othersThomas et al.
SJT-TASituational Judgment Test for TeamworkJob & careerGermanGerman

Gatzka & Volmer

EEDEmotional Empathic Drive Short ScalePersonalityEnglishGerman, EnglishKarlstetter
MOB-SWKScale for Assessing Teachers' Bullying-related Self-Efficacy  PersonalityGermanGermanFischer, Ulbricht & Bilz
SBSSupernatural Belief Scale - German VersionCulture, Religion, EducationEnglishEnglish, German + 2 othersBluemke, Merkle, Jong & Halberstadt
EPriVergeAttitudes towards Principles of Distributive JusticeSocial ProblemsGermanGermanFischer, Baumert & Schmitt
ALLO-15German Scale for Assessing Allophilia - the love of other culturesCulture, Religion, EducationGermanGermanSlavchova, Fröhlich & Stürmer
GPS-KA Short Scale of the General Procrastination ScalePersonalityGermanGermanKlingsieck & Fries
MBEMedia-based EmpathyPersonalityGermanGermanHapp & Pfetsch
BOKXJob- and Organizational Climate IndexJob & CareerGermanGerman, EnglishFischer et al.
KFI-30Motivational Functions of Exploratory Cross-Cultural Contact Culture, Religion, EducationGermanGerman, EnglishStürmer & Benbow
ZFSTemporal Focus ScalePersonalityGermanGermanGeiger, Domenech & van der Meer
FIRE-PFeedback Instrument for Rescue Forces Education - ExaminationsJob & careerGermanGermanThielsch, Busjan & Frerichs
CCS-T-7CCS-Based 7-Item Traditionalism ScalePersonalityEnglishEnglish, German + 4 othersPartsch, Danner & Chernyshenko
CCLSCross-Cultural Loss ScaleCulture, Religion, EducationEnglishEnglishWang, Wei, Zhao, Chuang & Li
MWSMeasurement Instrument for the Perception of Study RequirementsCulture, Religion, EducationGermanGermanJänsch & Bosse
AkOrMAcculturation Orientierung of MigrantsCulture, Religion, EducationGermanGermanMaehler
MISANDSMeasurment Instrument for the Identification of the Tendency to Drop out of a Dual Study Programme Culture, Religion, EducationGermanGermanDeuer & Wild
FIRE-BFeedback Instrument for Rescue Forces Education - Basic TrainingJob & careerGermanGermanThielsch, Kläpker & Streppel
FIREFeedback Instrument for Rescue Forces EducationJob & careerGermanGermanSchulte, Babiel, Messinger & Thielsch
MENIMultigroup Ethnic and National Identity MeasureCulture, Religion, EducationGermanGermanMaehler
KSDO-3Kurzskala Soziale Dominanzorientierung Social ProblemsGermanGermanAichholzer
PISPartisan Identity ScalePoliticsEnglishEnglishBankert & Huddy
KSE-G (English)Social Desirability-Gamma Short Scale (KSE-G)PersonalityEnglishEnglishNießen, Partsch, Kemper & Rammstedt
KSA-3 (English)Authoritarianism Short Scale (KSA-3)PoliticsEnglishEnglishNießen, Schmidt, Beierlein & Lechner


Inventar für Kollektive Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung (I-KSWE)EducationGermanGermanFischer


Perceived Organisational Support 

Job & careerGermanGermanSiebenaler & Fischer


Fragebogen zur Teamprozess-Messung (TP-M)Job & careerGermanGermanFischer


Fragebogeninventar für Freizeitinteressen Kurzversion (FIFI-K)Society & social affairsGermanGermanNikstat, Weitkämper & Kandler


Skala zur Erfassung der StudieneinstiegsselbstwirksamkeitEducationGermanGermanPetri

GESIS develops new measuremnt instruments for the social sciences. GESIS also provides assistance with shortening existing measurement instruments and developing new short scales.

Whereas the aforementioned items and scales have been published in German, the items are now also available in English. In near future they will be published, accompanied by evidence on measurement quality and comparability with the German source.

Scales on the following constructs are currently being evaluated in English, German, French, Spanish, Polish, and Japanese: personality, traditionalism, self control, self efficacy, integrity, social-emotional skills, (intellectual) curiosity, job orientations/work values, and job-related interests.

Articles in the  GESIS Survey Guidelines: