Eurobarometer Data Service

Attitude towards the Common European Currency

Is the respondent 'for' or 'against' a common European currency (single currency) replacing the national currencies in all EC / EU member states

[See notes for exact question wording over time.]

Starting with Eurobaromerer 61

What is your opinion on each of the following statements? Please tell me for each statement whether you are for or against it ... A European Monetary Union with one single currency, the EURO ...

ZA Study NumberEurobarometerFieldwork MonthFieldwork YearQuestion NumberVariable Name (1)
0626ECS702-31970Q.14a (2)V27
09906111976Q.174 (3)V111
1541233-41985Q.155 (5)V34
17153010-111988Q.443_3 (7)V565
196034.010-111990Q.57_9 (8)V157
203135.031991Q.41_7 (8)V90
20813610-111991Q.45_7 (8)V118
214137.03-41992Q.59_2 (9)V395
229438.09-101992Q.52_1 (10)V379
229438.09-101992Q.53_2 (9)V394
229538.1111992Q.19_1 (10)V36
229538.1111992Q.75 (11)V344
234639.03-41993Q.31_1 (10)V121
234639.03-41993Q.32 (12)V141
24594010-111993Q.44_1 (10)V105
249041.04-51994Q.28_1 (10)V87
249041.04-51994Q.57 (13)V181
249141.16-71994Q.44a (14)V137
249141.16-71994Q.52 (12)V186
25634211-121994Q.44_1 (10)V171
263743.14-51995Q.35_1 (10)V316
268944.010-111995Q.7 (15)V62
269044.111-121995Q.9 (15)V71
282844.2bis21996Q.31_1 (10)V420
283145.14-51996Q.18 (15)V254
289846.010-111996Q.12_1 (10)V52
289846.010-111996Q.24  (15)V160
289946.110-111996Q.23 (15)V153
293647.13-41997Q.22_1 (10)V151
295948.010-111997Q.25_1 (10)V188
295948.010-111997Q.29 (15)V218
3052494-51998Q.25_1 (10)V157
308550.010-111998Q.35_1 (10)V204
317151.03-41999Q.20_1 (10) 
320452.010-111999Q.33_1 (10) 
3296534-52000Q.32_1 (10) 
338754.111-122000Q.29_1 (10) 
350755.14-52001Q.28_1 (10) 
362756.210-112001Q.31_1 (10) 
363957.1 3-52002Q.25_1 (10) 
3979CCEB2002.2 9-102002Q.51 (16)  
390359.0 1-22003Q.2_1 A (10) 
390459.13-42003Q.23_1 (10) 
4159CCEB2003.13-42003Q9.C (17)  
3983CCEB2003.252003Q38.A 
3983CCEB2003.252003Q61 (16) 
3984CCEB2003.36-72003Q5.A 
393860.110-112003Q.29_1 (10)  
3986CCEB2003.410-112003Q44.A 
3986CCEB2003.410-112003Q68 (16) 
4056612-32004Q.29_1   
4246CCEB2004.12-32004Q29.A 
422962.010-112004Q.36_1 
441163.45-62005QA28_1  
441464.210-112005QA32_1   
450665.23-52006QA30_1   
452666.19-102006QA25_1  
453067.24-52007QA27_1 
456568.19-112007QA22_1  
474469.23-52008QA37_1  
481970.110-112008QA27_1  
479371.36-72009QA15_1  
499472.410-112009QA15_1  
523473.452010QA20_1  
544974.211-122010QA19_1  
548175.352011QA19_1  
556776.3112011QA16_1  
561277.352012QA19_1  
568578.1112012QA18_1  
568979.352013QA20_1  
587680.1112013QA17_1  
591381.232014QA11_1 
592881.45-62014QA17_1 
592382.3112014QA19_1 
599883.352015QA18_1 
664384.3112015QA15_1 
669485.252016QA17_1 
686387.352017QA16_1 
692888.3112017QA16_1 
696389.132018QA16_1 
748490.192018QA12 
748990.3112018QA15_1 

Is the respondent 'for' or 'against' a European Currency accepted as well as the national currencies?

[Please see notes for exact question wording.]

ZA Study NumberEurobarometerFieldwork MonthFieldwork YearQuestion NumberVariable Name (1)
1320213-41984Q.344_2 (4)V198
1541233-41985Q.156 (6)V35

Direction which the unification of Western Europe should take: a single European currency mentioned/not mentioned?

ZA Study NumberEurobarometerFieldwork MonthFieldwork YearQuestion NumberVariable Name (1)
17132810-111987Q.334_3V419
1714293-41988Q.337_3V366
17153010-111988Q.263_3V393

(1) Please note that the variable names refer to the final ICPSR/ZA codebook editions, if available. Otherwise future changes of variable names (in parenthesis) are possible.

(2) "Would you be favourable to, opposed to, or indifferent to ... the currency being replaced by a European Currency?"

(3) "Are you for or against (or have no feelings one way or the other) to the following ... if the (NATIONAL CURRENCY) were replaced by a European Currency?"

(4) "Supposing you were asked to vote on the following ideas, which would then apply to all countries equally in the European Community. Would you vote for or against ... to have a European Currency as well as our own, with notes and coins that could be used everywhere in the ten countries of the European Community in the same way we use our own (currency) here in (country)?"

(5) "Would you be for, against, or not mind either way if (national currency) were replaced by a European Currency?"

(6) "And would you be for, against or not mind either way if, as well as the existing national currencies, one could freely use a European Currency which would be accepted in all the countries of the European Community?"

(7) "Are you be for or against creating between the twelve countries of the European Community by 1992 ... a single European Currency, the ECU?"

(8) "The Council of Heads of State and Governments of the European Community has called for intergovernmental conferences (this December) to discuss details of a European Economic and Monetary Union and of a Political Union. I am going to read you a number of statements. For each one please tell me whether you are in favour or not, of ... within this European Economic and Monetary Union, a single common currency replacing the different currencies in the Member States in five or six years time?"

(9) "Following the meeting in Maastricht, (EB38.0: "At the moment) the debate on European Union continues. Could you please tell me whether you are in favour or not, of ... within this European Economic and Monetary Union, a single common currency replacing the different currencies in the Member States in five or six years time?"

(10) (EB38.0/38.1/39.0: "Irrespective of other details of the Maastricht Treaty ...) "What is your opinion on each of the following proposals (statements)? Please tell me for each proposal, whether you are for it or against it: There should (EB49 ff.: has to) be (a European Monetary Union with) one single currency (the EURO) (replacing (by 1999) the (NATIONAL CURRENCY) and all other national currencies of the Member States of the European Community (European Union))."

(11) "Einmal angenommen, es kommt zu einer Währungsunion aller Staaten in der Europäischen Gemeinschaft, wären Sie dann dafür oder dagegen, wenn es keine D-Mark mehr geben würde, sondern nur noch ein einheitliches europäisches Geld?" (asked only in Germany)

(12) "The European Community plans to introduce a common currency by 1999 at latest, the ECU. Are you in favour of replacing the (NATIONAL CURRENCY) or are you not in favour?

(13) "In general, are you strongly in favour, somewhat in favour, somewhat opposed or strongly opposed to the ECU being adopted as the single currency?"

(14) "Some people think it would be best for (OUR COUNTRY) to keep it's own currency and make it more independent from other European currencies. Others think the best thing would be to create a common European currency. What do you think? Should (OUR COUNTRY) keep it's (NATIONAL CURRENCY) and make it more independent from other European currencies, or should we aim at one common European currency?" (10-point-scale)

(15) "Are you for or against the European Union having one European Currency in all member states, including (OUR COUNTRY)? That is, replacing the (NATIONAL CURRENCY) by the European currency. Are you ... very much for, somewhat for, somewhat against, very much against?"

(16) Different question wording and answer scale: "Are you for or against the European Union having one European currency in all
member states, including (OUR COUNTRY) once we have joined? That is, replacing the (NAME OF NATIONAL CURRENCY) by the European currency, the Euro ? Are you... ? 4 - very much for; 3 - somewhat for; 2 - somewhat against; 1 - very much against

(17)  "What is your opinion on each of the following statements? Please tell me for each statement whether you are for or against it. A European Monetary Union with one single currency, the EURO ...