Eurobarometer Data Service

Respondents' sense of national / European identity

People differ in what they think it means to be (NATIONALITY). In your view, among the following, what do you think are the most important characteristics to be (NATIONALITY)?

And in terms of being European, among the following, what do you think are the most important characteristics?

  • To be christian
  • To share (NATIONALITY) / European cultural traditions
  • To be born in (COUNTRY) / Europe
  • To have at least one (NATIONALITY) / European parents
  • To feel (NATIONALITY) / European
  • [UNI-LANGUAGE COUNTRIES:] To master (COUNTRY LANGUAGE) [MULTI-LANGUAGE COUNTRIES:] To master one of the official languages of (OUR COUNTRY)  / any European language, in addition to your own language
  • To exercise citizen rights, for example voting in (OUR COUNTRY) / ... for example voting in the European Elections
  • To have been brought up in (OUR COUNTRY) / ... in a European Country 
  • Being active in any association or organization in (OUR COUNTRY) / ... involving other EU citizens
ZA Study NumberEurobarometerFieldwork MonthFieldwork YearQuestion NumberVariable Name (1)
497371.36-72009QE2 / QE3 
523373.33-42010QB1 

The European identity can be composed of several elements. In your opinion, which of the following are the most important elements that go to make up the European identity?

  • History / (73.3:) Common history
  • Geography
  • Democratic values / (starting with 77.4:) The values of democracy and freedom
  • (73.3 only:) A high level of social protection
  • Culture / (73.3:) Common culture
  • (73.3 only:) Common religious heritage
  • The single currency, the euro
  • The European anthem / (73.3:) Symbols: flag, hymn, motto "unity in diversity" 
  • The European flag / (73.3:) Symbols: flag, hymn, motto "unity in diversity"
  • The EU motto: "Unity in diversity" / (73.3:) Symbols: flag, hymn, motto "unity in diversity"
  • The success of the European economy (not in 73.3)
     
ZA Study NumberEurobarometerFieldwork MonthFieldwork YearQuestion NumberVariable Name (1)
481970.110-112008QD21 
497371.36-72009QE1 
523373.33-42010QB2 
561277.352012QD7 
561377.462012QP9 
587579.562013QP28 
593382.411-122014QP11 
659684.192015QP16 

In your opinion, among the following issues, which are those that most create a feeling of community among European Union citizens?

  • History 
  • Religion
  • Values
  • Geography
  • Languages
  • Legislation (EB 80.1 ff.: Laws; EB82.3 ff.: The rule of law)
  • Sports
  • Inventions, Science and Technology
  • Economy
  • Health care, education, pensions
  • Solidarity with poorer regions
  • Culture
  • Other
  • None, such a feeling does not exist (SPONTANEOUS)
  • None (SPONTANEOUS)

ZA Study Number

EurobarometerFieldwork MonthFieldwork YearQuestion NumberVariable Name (1)
481967.210-112008QA40 
523377.33-42010QD9 
568979.352013QD8 
587680.1112013QD9 
592881.45-62014QD6 
593282.3112014QD6 
599883.352015QD4 
664384.3112015QD6 
678886.2112016QD5 
686387.352017QD6 
692888.3112017QD5 
696389.132018QD5 
748990.3112018QD5 

(1) Please note that the variable names refer to the final ICPSR/ZA codebook editions, if available.