PD Dr. Natalja Menold

Survey Design and Methodology Fragebogendesign & -evaluation

+49 (621) 1246-286

Survey of Teachers in Pre-primary Education (STEPP)

Bearbeitung: Cornelia Neuert, Timo Lenzner
Leitung: Natalja Menold
Wissenschaftlicher Arbeitsbereich: Survey Design and Methodology (SDM), Pretestlabor


Cognitive Pre-Testing of Pilot Translations

Pilot translations of a selection of items will undergo cognitive pre-testing conducted in focus groups with both teachers/auxiliary pedagogical personnel and heads/managers of pre-primary education centres.

The main reasons why questions might not perform as intended are: (i) there would be a multitude of translation choices, which may be differently understood by the respondents;(ii) not well known cultural factors may influence interpretation of questions; and (iii) lack of construct overlap between the source language (language of the original questionnaire) and the target language (language of the translated instrument). Therefore, it is essential to empirically test translated questions and to uncover potential problems before fieldwork starts. In this regard, cognitive interviewing is the method of choice to ensure an appropriate question wording.

For cognitive interviews in different countries to produce meaningful information which is useful for the next steps in the instrument development careful planning regarding standardization and translation of the interview protocol is required. GESIS will develop an interview protocol in English (source language) containing the questions to be tested, scripted probes for each item to be tested, which will then be translated into the target languages.

GESIS will provide a pre-test manual with the methodology and guidelines for conducting cognitive interviews with the two target groups of teachers/auxiliary pedagogical personnel and heads/managers of pre-primary education centres. GESIS will also provide the national teams with a standardised categorisation scheme for data analysis; monitor the conduct of focus groups and data analysis; and will provide a manual how to document and report the findings.

The responsibility to conduct the cognitive labs lies with the National Focal Points together with the UNESCO local offices.



Gefördert durch



  • Australian Council for Educational Research Ltd (ACER)
  • cApStAn Linguistic Quality Control